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PSY240H1 (253)
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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Personality Disorders (Axis-II). In two columns per page, printing two pages (in total four columns) per page side works well =)

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
S.Cassin

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PSY240 Lecture 10 Personality Disorders
Features
Pattern manifested in : Cognition, affect,
interpersonal functioning, and/or impulse
control, differs from cultural expectations
Pervasive : Long-standing pattern evident
across wide range of personal, social, and
occupational situations
Clinically significant impairment : Personal
distress or impairment in social and
occupational functioning, may distress others
Must have early onset and stability : Evident
since at least late adolescence, stable and often
life-long, so need documentation of history
Low interatability, low reliability : clinicians
often disagree
Axis II - much overlap to Axis I disorders
Classification
PDs = long-standing, maladaptive, inflexible
ways of relating to world
Diagnosed on DSM Axis-II
Many problems with this classification
argued as to atheroretical
Hard to define cut-offs, not much evidence
Not much known about origins
Not much research except on borderline +
antisocial since hard to assess
Not much empirical support for clusters
Cluster A: Odd or Eccentric
oParanoid pervasive distrust and
suspiciousness of othersmotives
Suspects others are exploiting,
harming, or deceiving him/her
Preoccupied w/ doubts about loyalty +
trustworthiness of others
Reluctant to confide in others fear
info will be released
Misinterprets neutral comments or
events
Persistently bears grudges
Perceives attacks on his/her character
or reputation
Has recurrent suspicions regarding
fidelity of partner
Prevalence : .5 2%, more frequently in
males especially in clinical studies
Fairly stable over time, starts early
Often have difficulty forming repor w/
therapist
oSchizoid pervasive pattern of
detachment from social relationships
and restricted range of expression of
emotions in interpersonal settings
Neither desires not enjoys close
relationships
Almost always chooses solitary
activities
Has little, if any, interest in sexual
relationships
Takes pleasure in few, in any, activities
Lacks close friends or confidants
Appears indifferent to praise or
criticism of others
Shows emotional coldness, detachment,
or flattened affectivity
Can have overlap w/ Aspergers
Not distressing since have low interest
oSchizotypal pervasive pattern of social
and interpersonal deficits marked by
acute discomfort w/, and reduced
capacity for, close relationships as
well as by cognitive or perceptual
distortions or eccentricities of bhvr
Ideas of reference
Odd beliefs or magical thinking
(Important to keep cultural
background in mind)
Unusual perceptual experiences
Odd thinking and speech
Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation
Inappropriate or constricted affect
Bhvr or appearance that is odd,
eccentric, or peculiar
Lack of close friends or confidants
Excessive social anxiety associated w/
paranoid fears
No acute phases of schizophrenia but
can become schizophrenia, might be
prodomal symptoms
Prevalence: 3%, more common in
males, tends to be stable over time
Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic
oHistrionic pervasive pattern of
excessive emotionality + attention
seeking
www.notesolution.com
drama queen
Uncomfortable in situations in which
he/she is not the centre of attention
Interaction with others is often
characterized by inappropriate
seductive or provocative bhvr
Displays rapidly shifting + shallow
expressions of emotion
Consistently uses physical appearance
to draw attention
Shows self-dramatization, theatricality,
+ exaggerated expression of emotion
Superficial when talks about own
emotions
Is suggestible easily influenced by
others
Considers relationships to be more
intimate than they really are, seems
extroverted but really doesnt have
many close relationships
Prevalence: 2-3% of population, young
adult middle adult then symptoms
tend to decrease, more common in
females than males might have
gender bias of criteria
oNarcissistic pervasive pattern of
grandiosity, need for admiration, +
lack of empathy
Has grandiose sense of self-importance
Preoccupied w/ fantasies of unlimited
success, power, brilliance, beauty, or
ideal love
Believes he/she is special or unique +
can only be understood by other special
ppl (often a reaction to criticism)
Has sense of entitlement, expects to be
recognized for achievements, expects
ppl to bend rules for them and cater to
the
Interpersonally exploitive
Lacks empathy
Envious of others or believes others are
envious of him/her
Often have depression + low self-
esteem
Shows arrogant bhvrs or attitudes
Can be to hide low self-esteem
Prevalence : 50-75% male
oBorderline pervasive pattern of
instability of interpersonal
relationships, self-image, and affect, +
marked impulsivity
Frantic efforts to avoid real or
imagined abandonment
Pattern of unstable + intense
interpersonal relationships (ex.
Attachment w/ therapists)
Identity disturbance
Might not have own strong
interests and sense of self
Impulsivity in areas that are
potentially self-damaging
Recurrent suicidal bhvr, gestures, or
threats inpatients
Affective instability due to a marked
reactivity of mood
Sometimes due to stress or
misperception of relationship
stability
Chronic feelings of emptiness
Inappropriate, intense anger or
difficulty controlling anger
Transient stress-related paranoid or
dissociative symptoms
Most researched + diagnosed most
reliably 265 dif ways of diagnosis
Prevalence : 60-65% female might
have gender bias
More intense in adolescence
+early adulthood, waxes +wanes
Characteristics :
(Typically addressed at beginning of
treatment)
Suicide threats most common
to get attention, cause trouble, in
rage
Overdose no usual pattern,
barbiturates most frequent
Self-mutilation wrist-slashing
most frequent, then body banging,
then burning, puncturing, or hair
removal
oChannel emotional pain into
physical outlet, punish self for
being irrational
www.notesolution.com

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Description
PSY240 Lecture 10 Personality Disorders Often have difficulty forming repor w Features therapist Pattern manifested in: Cognition, affect, oSchizoid pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships interpersonal functioning, andor impulse control, differs from cultural expectations and restricted range of expression of Pervasive : Long-standing pattern evident emotions in interpersonal settings across wide range of personal, social, and Neither desires not enjoys close occupational situations relationships Clinically significant impairment : Personal Almost always chooses solitary distress or impairment in social and activities occupational functioning, may distress others Has little, if any, interest in sexual Must have early onset and stability : Evident relationships since at least late adolescence, stable and often Takes pleasure in few, in any, activities life-long, so need documentation of history Lacks close friends or confidants Low interatability, low reliability: clinicians Appears indifferent to praise or often disagree criticism of others Axis II- much overlap to Axis I disorders Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity Classification Can have overlap w Aspergers PDs = long-standing, maladaptive, inflexible Not distressing since have low interest oSchizotypal pervasive pattern of social ways of relating to world Diagnosed on DSM Axis-II and interpersonal deficits marked by Many problems with this classification acute discomfort w, and reduced argued as to atheroretical capacity for, close relationships as Hard to define cut-offs, not much evidence well as by cognitive or perceptual Not much known about origins distortions or eccentricities of bhvr Not much research except on borderline + antisocial since hard to assess Ideas of reference Odd beliefs or magical thinking Not much empirical support for clusters (Important to keep cultural Cluster A: Odd or Eccentric background in mind) Unusual perceptual experiences oParanoid pervasive distrust and Odd thinking and speech suspiciousness of others motives Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation Suspects others are exploiting, Inappropriate or constricted affect harming, or deceiving himher Bhvr or appearance that is odd, Preoccupied w doubts about loyalty + eccentric, or peculiar trustworthiness of others Lack of close friends or confidants Reluctant to confide in others fear Excessive social anxiety associated w info will be released paranoid fears Misinterprets neutral comments or events No acute phases of schizophrenia but can become schizophrenia, might be Persistently bears grudges prodomal symptoms Perceives attacks on hisher character Prevalence: 3%, more common in or reputation males, tends to be stable over time Has recurrent suspicions regarding fidelity of partner Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Prevalence: .5 2%, more frequently in males especially in clinical studies oHistrionic pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality + attention Fairly stable over time, starts early seeking www.notesolution.com
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