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Lecture

Personality Disorders

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
S.Cassin

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Personality Disorders22:08
Axis II disorder.
Features of Personality Disorders
Enduring patterns that deviate from cultural expectations
Pattern is manifested in:
Cognition, affect, interpersonal functioning, and/or impulse control
Pervasive:
Evident across a wide range of personal, social, and occupational situations
Clinically significant impairment:
Personal distress or impairment in social and occupational functioning
Early onset and stability:
Evident since at least late adolescence and stable
DSM IV Personality Disorders
Cluster A: Odd or eccentric
Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal
Paranoid PD: a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others’ motives. Prevalence is about 1.5 –
2%.
Schizoid PD: a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range
of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings. Very indifferent.
Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships
Almost always chooses solitary activities
Little interest in sex
Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
Lacks close friends
Appears indifferent to praise/criticism of others
Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity
Schizotypal PD: A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute
discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or
perceptual distortions or eccentricities of behaviour.
Ideas of reference
Odd beliefs or magical thinking
Unusual perceptual experiences
Odd thinking and speech
Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation
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Inappropriate or constricted affect
Behaviour or appearance that is odd, eccentric or peculiar
Lack of close friends
Excessive social anxiety that is associated with paranoid fears
Prevalence: 3 %
Cluster B: Dramatic, emotional, or erratic
Histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial
Histrionic PD: a pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking.
Uncomfortable in situations in which he/she is not the centre of attention
Interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate seductive or provocative behaviour
Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expressions of emotion
Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention
Show self-dramatization, theatricality, and exaggerated suppression of emotion
Is suggestible – easily influenced by others
Considers relationships to be more intimate than they are
2 – 3% prevalence, more females than males
This disorder is very gender biased
Tends to decrease with age
Narcissistic PD: a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy.
Has a grandiose sense of self-importance
Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty or ideal love
Believes that he or she is special or unique and can only be understood by other special people
Has a sense of entitlement
Is interpersonally exploitive
Lacks empathy
Envious of others or believes that others are envious of him/her
Shows arrogant behaviours or attitudes
50-75% male
Borderline PD: a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and
affect, as well as marked impulsivity.
Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships
Identity disturbance
Impulsivity in areas that are potentially self-damaging
Recurrent suicidal behaviour, gestures, or threats
Affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood
Chronic feelings of emptiness
Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger
Transient stress-related paranoid or dissociative symptoms
2% in populations, 20% inpatient prevalence
www.notesolution.com
Fairly chronic, but more intense in early adulthood and wanes a bit with age
Causes of Borderline PD
Genetic vulnerability
Disturbed early relationship with parents (there is a theory that suggests that people with
borderline PD have over-stimulated biological symptoms combined with an invalidating
environment, whereby the parents neglect or invalidate the childs emotions).
Physical or sexual abuse
Treatment of Borderline PD
Prognosis is generally poor
Combination of approaches is recommended
Medication
Object relations therapy (idea that people with BPD need to focus on correcting emotional
relationships, i.e., with therapist)
Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT): focuses on things individual must change in order to
improve their lives, and also focuses on validating what the person is thinking, “it makes sense”.
Gives support to people and lets them know that their disorder has causes.
Antisocial PD: pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring
since age 15 (must have conduct disorder as a child)
Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviours
Deceitfulness
Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead
Irritability and aggressiveness
Reckless disregard for safety of self or others
Consistent irresponsibility
Lack of remorse
3% prevalence, male gender biased
Behaviours tend to wane in intensity as age increases
Cluster C: Fearful or anxious
Avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive
Avoidant PD: a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity
to negative evaluation.
Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact
Is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked
Shows restraint with intimate relationships
Is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected
Is inhibited in new interpersonal situations
Views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Personality Disorders 22:08 Axis II disorder. Features of Personality Disorders Enduring patterns that deviate from cultural expectations Pattern is manifested in: Cognition, affect, interpersonal functioning, andor impulse control Pervasive: Evident across a wide range of personal, social, and occupational situations Clinically significant impairment: Personal distress or impairment in social and occupational functioning Early onset and stability: Evident since at least late adolescence and stable DSM IV Personality Disorders Cluster A: Odd or eccentric Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal Paranoid PD: a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others motives. Prevalence is about 1.5 2%. Schizoid PD: a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings. Very indifferent. Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships Almost always chooses solitary activities Little interest in sex Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities Lacks close friends Appears indifferent to praisecriticism of others Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity Schizotypal PD: A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions or eccentricities of behaviour. Ideas of reference Odd beliefs or magical thinking Unusual perceptual experiences Odd thinking and speech Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation www.notesolution.com
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