PSY322H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: O. J. Simpson, Lexical Decision Task, Implicit Stereotype

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26 Jan 2013
Lecture 5: Stereotype Inhibition
Bodenhausen and Macrae model:
Facilitated factors or inhibitory factors to stereotype
1. Categorization and stereotype activation: What might lead to inhibition or
facilitator in the initial processing stage? Can determine which stereotype is
activated and which is inhibited. When under cognitive load then it might facilitate
stereotype. Depending on priming and context, then will lead to some inhibitions
of stereotype competing stereotypes
2. Biased interpretation stage in which personal control is there and the prejudice
can be seen. The initial stage is the unconscious stage of processing. Depending on
whether you endorse or reject the stereotype, then you would either be motivated
to apply stereotypes or attempt to suppress the stereotypes. They might not stop
thinking about the stereotype, but they might attempt to suppress the stereotype.
3. Discriminatory response towards people that is affected by social norms (social
control). Some norms say that it is alright to be prejudiced and some says that it is
not alright. Thus you might not be comfortable with something but you might not
want to say that it is inappropriate. You also might want to conceal your prejudices
in an egalitarian society.
Categorization and
stereotype activation
Cognitive load
Competing stereotypes -
Biased Interpretation
Motivated reasoning
personal endorsement
Attempted suppression
personal rejection
Social control
Concealment normative
Devine’s notion: breaking a bad habit
High and low prejudice people have implicit stereotypes
In order to break the bad habit for low prejudiced people:
Establish non-prejudiced standards based on own personal beliefs. Try to compete
stereotype activation and non- prejudiced belief and eventually the latter would
win, but it would take time.
Internalize standards
Learn how to inhibit stereotypic response
Try to suppress the activation of stereotype - try to have personal control
However they also want to reduced categorization at initial processing sub
conscious stage
Negation Training: Just say no!
Kawakami ET. Al
Can you train people to break the bad habit of stereotype activation?
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Negative training: Just say no!
Skinhead stereotype vs. elderly stereotype
Trying to train people not to stereotype skinhead and elderly
The elderly stereotype was a lot more complex and thus was not discussed
Present them with a photo of a skinhead and paired with a stereotypic (hostile)
trait or a non-stereotypic (kind) trait
People were supposed to press no to the hostile trait and yes to the kind trait.
Saying no to skinheads being hostile and yes to the skinheads being kind
Did this over hundreds of trials
Stroop Effect
Name the colour of the word
They had the word skinhead category and another word which has a colour and
you have the name the colour
In some trials the second word fits the stereotype of skinhead and in some other
trials the second word does not fit the stereotype of skinhead
Did the stroop test twice , once before negation training and once after negation
Pre-test consistent: people would be slower with identifying the stereotypic word
as you are actually processing the semantics of word since it matches the
stereotypes of the skinhead. The processing of the semantics of the word would
interfere with the colour of the word.
Pre-test inconsistent: people would be faster to respond to non-stereotypic words
as it is just a word without any semantics implications. There is no interference
from a stereotypic content.
Thus slower reaction times means greater stereotype activation
Post-test: After the intervention of negation training they would process the
colour of the stereotypic words faster.
They were slower to respond to the colour of the word when there is a stereotypic
word to skinhead than to the elderly in the pre-test. Interference.
They were equal to process the colour of the word when there is a stereotypic
word to skinhead and to the elderly in the post-test
Thus they were quicker to process the colour of the stereotypic word after the
negation training and thus they were able to reduce stereotype.
Ultimately they are trying to get into the initial processing part where they are
measuring the automatic and unconsciousness of the person. Reaction time
measures implicit thoughts rather than explicit thoughts.
Training/expertise: police officers and the shooter bias
What are the effects of training on the shooter bias?
3 groups: Denver police, Denver community members, national police
Police officers receive extensive training to make shoot/don’t shoot decisions
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