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Lecture

PSY333H1 Lecture Notes - Good And Evil, Fetus, Tuberculosis


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY333H1
Professor
Nevena Simic

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Health Psychology Lecture #1
May 14 th
, 2012
Syllabus:
Recent news stories (peaks interest)
A page deliver main message
-2-3 references (studies primary research papers)
- Has to have a thesis/focus (bring points back to thesis
Multiple choice, short answer, fill in the blanks
- Short answer and fill in the blanks (lecture), multiple choice (textbook)
What is Health Psychology?
Understanding psychological influences on:
- How people stay healthy
- Why they become ill
- How they respond when they do get ill
In 1948, the W.H.O. defined health as “a complete state of physical, mental, and social
well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”
- Not only physical but can be a problem elsewhere (there is a mental aspect of being
healthy)
- Good relationships with others (social support, information that you are cared for and
that you are important)
Four main points in health psychology:
1) Focus on health promotion and maintenance (study all the issues surrounding this)
How to get children to develop good health habits (wash hands after washroom)
2) Prevention and treatment of illness (cutback bad habits)
Teach how to better cope with stress so that it doesn’t adversely affect the
person (psychotherapy, cope with illness)
3) Etiology and correlates of health, illness, and dysfunction
Etiology refers to the causes of illness and health psychology is interested in
behavioural and social factors that contribute to health or illness/dysfunction.
4) Analyze and improve the health care system and the formulation of health policy
(applying their knowledge to improve the system (Canada publicly funded).
Small group exercise (10 examples of what a health psychologist may do)
- Work with social networks
- Help cope with terminally ill
- Rehab
- Mental to physical
- Physical to mental
Health Psychology:
Study how psychological processes (mind) influence physical well-being (body)

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Mind- body relationship
Mind & body vs. Mind-Body
-One unit or two entities (dualism) pendulum swings back and forth
Earliest Times:
The mind and body were seen as a unit
- Disease=evil spirits entering the body
- Treatment= spirits could be exorcised (penance)
Stone Ages...
Trephination is small holes made in skull which altered the “evil spirit” to leave the body
as the “physician/shaman” performed treatment ritual
Historical Perspectives on the mind and body:
Are they separate systems or part of the same system?
Figure 1.1 timeline of mind-body relationship
Trephination:
Oldest human surgical procedure
Cave paintings suggest that it was used as a cure for epileptic seizures, migraines, mental
disorders
- Have evidence of medicine kit with tools needed to perform surgery
Differences in holes: precision, numbers, location, size
The Greeks:
First to realize role of bodily functions in health and illness
Developed a humoral theory of illness
- Changes with physical self (proposed by Hippocrates, expanded by Galen)
- Diseases= 4 circulating fluids of the body are out of balance (out of homeostasis)
- Treatment= restore balance
Humoral Theory (associated with various elements):
4 humours (from greek “juice”):
-Black bile (Gk. Melan chole) earth
-Yellow bile (Gk. Chole) fire
-Phlegm (Gk. Phlegm) Water
-Blood (Lt. Sanguis) air
-For example, wet +cold (phlegm) damage to regain balance to warm + dry
Greeks, Romans, Muslims, Western Europeans (subscribed to this theory)
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Balance depends on diet and exercise, vapors (promote health)
Humoral Theory & Temperament
Temperament (Lt. “to mix”)
Galen used “temperament” to refer to bodily dispositions, which determined a person’s
susceptibility to particular diseases as well as behavioural and emotional inclination (affect
+ mood)
Later personality
-Example overexpressing= blood predisposed to optimism
- Phlegm= more apathetic
- Black bile= more melancholic (sad or depressed)
- Yellow bile= easily irritated
Middle Ages
Back to mental explanations of illness
Mysticism and demonology
- Disease= “Gods punishment of evildoing”
-Treatment= driving the evil out by torturing the body (physical forms)
Later this therapy was replaced by penance through prayer and good works; bloodletting,
leaching
Church= guardian of medical knowledge
Renaissance (the Enlightenment)
Trying to break with the superstitions of the pasts, physicians strongly reinforced the
dualistic concept of mind and body
- Physicians= guardians of the body (nauseous)
- Theologians & philosophers= caretakers of the mind (sin)
Separate things
For the next 300 years physicians focused on organic and cellular changes and pathology as
a basis for their medical inferences
- Physical evidence: sole basis for diagnosis and treatment
As the years go by... Rise of Modern psychology (bring mind + body back together):
Freud- physical problems result from unconscious processes
Conversion Hysteria: idea that specific illnesses are produced by individual’s internal
conflict.
- Patient converts conflict into symptom
Conversion occurs via voluntary nervous system: enables humans to react consciously to
environmental changes.
- By treating conflict you would treat the malady
Conversion Hysteria
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