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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Lecture 1 20/09/2012 08:11:00 Will to pay attention to one thing, introspection – describe what their thoughts were Edward Tichener – study consciousness – bringing it down to components, expectations and limitations  William James – disagreed – believed the stream of consciousness – change is very personnel not a static thing  Mind was adaptive – survive and adapt to the environment  Functionalists – still important way to think about things  Behaviorism – focus on peoples overt behavior, what we could see is not only the ones mind – but ones behavior Watson – behavior – nurture side – an environment in which it made you who you are – brought up a certain way  Skinner – token economies – practice done in institutions – token for people who had good behavior – teaching people how to do things – like a puppy given treats when a “trick” is performed  Mental processes, common of revolution – 1970’s – understanding behavior, not just environment but also the inner mind and the workings Four ways of knowing about the world – the observation of science What is science?  1. Determinism: not random but systematic – without it theories doesn’t make sense, orderly systematic for any theory to surface  Have 2 or more variables - Variable: varies, different from individual to individual  2. Empiricism: to find out and understand by going out and getting first hand experience  3. Parsimony: two competing theories – 2 theories explaining the same thing, we favor the simplest explanations, fewest assumptions  4. Testability: has to be testable – to be conformed and tested, has the availability to confirmed and tested with results. Falsifiability – must be possible to disprove a theory or hypothesis – can be disproven by evidence  Falsifiable – never going to be a scientific theory because no one can ever prove it to be false 2013-04-15  Operational definitions – figuring out a way to measure something that otherwise wouldn’t be able to measure  Some variables will be defined – temperature, height, weight  Variables not-defined – constructs that cannot be directly observed, how extraverted, anxiety, explaining behavior  Ex. Intoxication – take someone’s blood alcohol, operational define - not feeling drunk at that level, behavioral measure – walking in a straight line  Self reported measure – they report upon questionnaires – indicate how intoxicated they are themselves  A single study – even a brilliant single study – on its own, does not tell you much – slow process, lots of studies before a theory starts establishing  Control given to the experimentalists  Descriptive studies – naturalistic observation – go out in the world and passively observing the world, observing how people act, we are not having any contact  Participant observation – involved with them – interact and communicate with the people  False hypothesis - not to test hypothesis but to come up with based on own intuition and others research work and papers  Correlational study – doesn’t involve manipulation – finding 2 variables – looking and looking for any differences, out there – just to collect data  Correlation DOES NOT allow us to make causational claims – ex. Can’t claim that the billboards regarding less violence lead to less violence  Third variable problem – usually what we don’t think about or haven’t thought about – ex. Population Relationships between variables  Correlation between depression and suicide  Rely on correlation - to avoid unethical experiments  Experiments – independent variable – manipulated, manipulated by the researcher  Dependent variable – variable being measured – assuming change 2013-04-15  Confound – controlling for as many as we can – unintentional varying along the independent variables – alternative students – threats to our experiments – reduce our ability to make strong clausal changes  Random sample – each member  Random assignment – a true experiment, every participant has an equal chance as every body else  Reactivity – Hawthorne – make people not know we are observing  Open ended – any type of response  Close ended – survey – check a box, limit response  Self-report bias – people who know researchers will read their response – they will change their responses – change anything they might think is sensitive – come up with ways to avoid  Have a bunch of different questions – only look at a few questions –  Better then average – down grade  Stoop effect  ZAPS: NQ4WK83V Response performance  Same or differ – stimulus judgment  Correct or incorrect response – response accuracy  Speed of response – reaction time  Different stimuli – causes different brain scan changes Oxygen levels, glucose levels to see difference in psychological axis’s  Crossing levels of analysis – cultural, across different culture  Social – imagining with others, actions Personality  Biological – physical, biological difference between people Understanding in all levels  How well on test – biological genetics – individual, how well they studied for the test – social, performing in a group of people, social identity, thinking about other people – cultural, how they value education, how hard they’ll study.  Cultural – Hollywood culture, us culture  Social – nature of relationship  Individual – personality, age, self esteem  Biological - sexual desire hormones 2013-04-15 RESEARCH ETHICS – WWII – medical experimentation – research---needed to form acceptable experiments  Nuremburg code – basic ethical principles,  Qualify to do a type of research – research protocols have to be approved by independent variables  Fabrication – researcher has gone out and fabricated their data – complete false date – no data was collected, just made it up  Staple – lord of the data  Falsification – found legitimate data – but tweaking the data so that it supports the hypothesis  Plagiarism Lecture 2 20/09/2012 08:11:00 Term test format  60 m/c questions 1hr 45mins  write notes from textbook  Room posted Descriptive vs. Correlational Studies  Found middle class families tend to read together more than lower class families  Middle class students got better grades in school later on  Attitude doesn’t match behavior – stayed with 11 individuals – seekers  Told them spaceship will come – sat in the back and observed what would happen when it didn’t happen.  Sat there and observed and how they dissolved this dissonance Correlational Studies  Researcher is not manipulating any variables – just out there in the world – systematically as we can – they are just there  Problems sleeping to begin with go to phone? What causes changes what – can’t say cellphone uses at night leads to depression or insomnia leads to using cellphones  Use changes to predict claims  Can’t make clausal changes – can’t say it caused another thing to happen Third-variable problem and confounds  Can’t manipulate  Third variable – something that help a clausal claim  Confounds – provide alternate changes in any changes in the dependent variables – other variables that snuck in there – that explains changes.  Eg. Drunk and sober people driving different cars  Drunk people driving smart cars  Sober people driving SUV’s  Whether people are intoxicated or not – independent variable 2013-04-15  Drunk people were bad at driving than sober people, they may just be bad at driving smart cars or something Good research requires data that is…  Accuracy – free from error  Random error – not a bad error – Eg. Time reaction times of a trial – too fast on some trials on a timer, or too slow on some trials. But overall average is okay.  Systematic error – problem on the stopwatch – always 2 seconds longer than it should be – error there on the data – cannot even out to become average – it’s just going to be there  Validity – How accurate is your hypothesis in your measurements  Eg. Comes to psychology test but is given geography test – geography test is valid – but invalid on psychological measure Validity of our operational definitions  Internal states that we cannot measure  Different ways of operational definitions – how well our operational definitions are getting at the underline construct we are interested in  Happy mood – learn better? Think of how to manipulate happiness or sadness  Internal validity – confounds – experiements – places of controlling confounds – changes in independent variable to the changes of the dependant variables  Ability of making clausal claims  External validity – extend out to the real world – x leads to changes of y – does it general outside the class? Street? Group? Time? World? Etc… done in the external world are more external validity  Balancing external and internal validity – studies – no matter how professional and great the study is – one is not enough – need many different studies that leads to a better one, even then it’s not enough – in the lab then extend it to the real world and how it happens in the real world Reliablility 2013-04-15  Inter-observer agreement – different observers and judges comes to the same judgments – 2 observers engaging in the same behavior – how both observation agree with each other – question of reliability  Eg. Olympics – bunch of judges on every sport to get somewhere in the middle  Train obsservors – so they know exactly what they are looking for and work from a specific rubric or else its going to get hectic  Internal consistency – throw out any that has uncertainty  Temporal consistency – how measure remains stable over time – if a questionnaire is given – a month later – the score should stay about the same – low test and retest reliability – should connect from one to another unless there is an extra variable that ruins it Evaluating our Data  Descriptive statistics – we have all data – figure out a way to orgainize it in some meaningful way  Central tendency – all about the SINGLE MOST REPRESENTATIVE SCORE of your data  Choose a number that represents all my data – one number  Mean – summing up all scores and dividing by number of the data used to sum up  Median – halfway point – all data lined up from fastest reaction to slowest reaction time – find the reaction time in the middle  Mode – most frequent value/number on our data set – corresponds only when there is a actual score  Each mean, median, mode is used in certain situations  Eg. Income – uses median – because there are some skewed distributions  Variablility – tells someone our data – some additional data that is useful to my data Variability  Standard deviation - using the range – how far data is spread  on average – how average score is around the mean – is it clustered closely around or spread out mean 2013-04-15 o smaller standard deviation – clustered closer together o larger standard deviation – scores are spread futher apart o Ex. 75% - standard deviation small, 5, most between 70 and 80 range Correlations Coeffients  Scatterplots o No correlation - Absolutely not relationships in between them o Medium is somewhere in the middle o Negative – negative slope o Positive – positive slope Evaluating our data  Ingerential statistics – make claims that go beyond our data – extend out to population that we are interested in o Is our independent variable have a significant effect on our dependent variable o If there were no different performance on the trials – what is the chance that we would get this scrore?  Less than 5%, there would be significant difference Replicate, Revise, Report  Relsication o Go out and do the exact experiement and see if we get the same data  Conceptual o Looking at the same studies – but going at it in a different way  Revise o Adjusting theory based on what we find  Report o Sharing research with the rest of the world  Report  Journal  Live shows …  Experiments are not effective until it is presented to others Lecture 3 20/09/2012 08:11:00 Genetics  Important – influence our behaviors  Nature and nurture are entwined – affect our behavior interconnected The Nervous System  Central nervous system (CNS) o 99% of nerve cells in our body o 100 billion of nervous  Peripheral nervous system (PNS) o Somatic nervous system – external world o Autonomic nervous system – coming from inside our body  Sympathetic nervous system  Parasympathetic nervous system Neurons  Three types of neurons o Sensory neurons (afferent neurons) – taking info from external world into our brains o Motor neurons (efferent neurons) – sending signals from brain to move a part of the bodies o Interneurons – send info back and forth The Neuron  Neuron structure o Dendrites – receive messages from the other neurons surrounding it o Cell body – receives all info – integrates all info and figures out what to do with the info o Axon – key to electron impulse from neuron to neuron o Terminal buttons – house neurotransmitters – signals that are passed from neurons to neurons o Synapse – neurons don’t touch each other – released into tiny spaces where other neurons receives  Example – How is a neuron like a 14 old girl 2013-04-15 o Gets information from a friend – other people telling her things – think about the messages and whether she is excited enough to tell other people  Excitatory signals – increase the likelihood to fire to other neurons  Inhibitory signals – decrease the likelihood to fire to other neurons  Neurons fire action potential when they get really excited  All or none principle – neurons either fire all or none – same potency each time o Can differ in the frequency it can fire – fire once or a whole bunch of times  Action potential o Impulse travel down axon – cause to release signals to other neurons out there  Neuronal communication o Neurons – polarized – more negative inside cell than outside o Cell is selective permeable – lets more potassium ion into it than sodium o Pumps to pump k+ into the cell and Na+ outside the cell o Inside is slightly negative compared to outside o Sodium ions can only pass through sodium gates o Potassium ions can only past through potassium gates o Fires action potential – when sodium channels open – all the potassium goes outside – polarization changes o Sodium ions are all in therefore inside cell is more positive than outside o And then returns to resting potential – slightly more negative in the cell Neurotransmitters  Different chemical substances bind to particular receptors in our post synaptic membrane Common Neurotransmitters  Acetylcholine – motor control of the junction between nerves and muscles  Epinephrine – adrenaline – responsible for energy 2013-04-15  Dopamine – from awards pleasure Ho drugs or toxin works  Affect how neurotransmitters work o Agonists – increase how much neurotransmitters that are released o Prevent neurotransmitters from reabsorbed from the releaser o Mimicking a neurotransmitters – activating a post synaptics receptor by pretending to be that neurotransmitter o EG. Cocaine, methamphetamine- all works by increasing the release the  Antagonists o Blocking the release of neurotransmitters o Destroy neurotransmitters in the synapse – prevent them from reaching the synapse receptor o Mimicking – blocking from the actual neurotransmitter BRAINS – From the bonntom up  Brain Stem – survival  Cerebellum – movement  Subcortical structures – emotion and basic drives  Cortical structures – complex mental activity The Brainstem  Autonomic – done without thinking – breathing, heart rate The Cerebellum  Coordinated movement and balance  Alcohol reaches the cerebellum – o Remembering – belly dancing – need coordinated movment Subcortical structures  Hypothalamus o Master regulatory structure o Vital to 4  Fighting 2013-04-15  Fleeing  Feeding  Mating  Thalamus o Receiving all sensory information and decides where to direct it – everything except for smell  The hippocampus o Greek work for seahorse o Storage of new memories – everyday sorts of memory  The amygdala o Related to memory o Storage of emotional memories o Recognize emotion during music  Basal Ganglia o Group of similary structured neurons o Components are responsible for producing or planning movement  Cerebral cortex o Outer layer of the brain o Each hemisphere has four lobes o The corpus callosum connects the hemispheres and allows them to communicate together o Massive bridge of axons connected right and left hemisphers o Four lobes  Occipital lobes – sight, seeing  Parietal lobes - ouch and feel, primary somatosensory cortex  Temporal lobes – hearing, primary auditory cortex – also has some specialized visual areas – home to memory(hippocampus and amygdala)  Frontal lobes – makes us move - prefrontal cortex – what makes me, me – makes up 30% of the brain  Prefrontal Cortex o Change behavior, social behavior, dramatic personality changes (was it a temporal problem or was it permanent) – if damaged, no longer the person that once was 2013-04-15  Somatosensory and Motor o Homunculus  Connected body parts are usually represented beside each other on our brain  Body areas that have more sensory – has a bigger part in the brain Lecture 4 20/09/2012 08:11:00 Spinal Cord  PNS – peripheral nervous system o Touching hot stove – sensory receptors receive information  Synapse in spinal cord helps move hands away from heat source, does not send information into brain for it to tell our arms to let go Peripheral Nervous sysem  Transimits information from brain to spinal cord o 2 components  somatic nervous system– external environment, reflex pathways, responds  under voluntary control  coordinate reflexes  sensory receive info from environment sending it to spinal cord then acts on without thinking  primarily motor neuros – send signals from the brain to the muscles  CNS – muscles/skin/joints  Moving in a way that I would want it to move  Some sensory neurons  Sneds signals to the brain  autonomic nervous system – internal environment  glands/internal organs  sensations within the body, hunger, full bladder …  telling us whats going on inside our body  TWO different type of signals travel from the CNS to the glands/ointernal organs  Sympathetic division of the ANS – preparing for action for something wrong in the environment  Fight or flight response  Pupil dilate – to be able to see more  Faster breathing – to intake more oxygen to prepare brain 2013-04-15  Heart beat speeds – to increase blood flow to lungs and muscles  Inhibits digestion – to use energy for other stuff  Blood vessels – pale to the face – vessel blood flow constricted – sending blood to muscles getting it ready for action  Can be activated by all kinds of things  Parasympathetic Division of the ANS – restores self to normal  Does opposing activities of the sympathetic division  Rest and digest mode for the body to relax  Sympathetic and parasympathetic division MUST work in a complementary fashion  Chronic activiation of either system can lead to health problems o Eg high blood pressure (sympathetic) o Eg low pressure (parasympathetic) Communication: More than Nerves  Endocrine system o Pituitary gland - telling other hormones of what to do o Hypothalamus – controls the pituitary gland Neural (Nervous System) vs. Hormonal communication (Endocrine system)  FOUR main differences o Travel – telephone vs. television  Neural sent from one to another by connection  Hormones can be affected by another, Like wifi o Time lapse  Milliseconds vs. seconds/minutes/hours  Neural takes a few seconds  Hormones can take any time  Signal  All or none vs. graded 2013-04-15  Control  Sometimes voluntary vs. completetory Plasticity  Plastic – able to be changes and reorganized  “Fire together, wire together” o neurons firing simultaneously all the time grow a very strong bond o those that do not grow weaker  Neurogenesis: brain can generate new neurons Cultural Effects on the brain  Cultural neuroscience - differences in living areas result in different brain activities  East vs. West culture differences o Chinese vs. European American o Difference in the amount of time a person spends on foreground or background o Where eyes focus on foreground or background  American – focus more on the object after a while  Chinese – focus more on the background – on the context of the photos  Cultural effects on the brain o Eastern – holistic context  More focused on relationships  Mothers focus on teaching relationship between objects o Western analytic  Independent  Like rules – and place with others What is consciousness?  How we are, how we are experiencing our world around us at that given moment  Limits to our conscious experience – ant be aware of everything at that moment – why we aren’t great multitaskers – cant pay attention and be aware of everything 2013-04-15 o Eg, blinsight patients – damage to visual areas to their brains – no sight – no visual awareness  Guess something – forcing them to make a response – they do perform by chance o Subliminal messages – messages that we get but we are not aware of it – brain sees it and processed it, but we don’t have the memory – but we did not make a conscious decision to remember it Subliminal Perception  Independent variable – thirst  Dependent variable – amount of kool-aid consumed  Overthinking it The Brain  Corpus callosum – connecting right hemisphere with left hemisphere  Split brain, split mind o Interpreter  Creates a comprehensible story out of events  Find patterns and relationshipps o Fusiform face area (FFA) Lecture 5 20/09/2012 08:11:00 Altered States of Consciousness:  SLEEP o Brain remains active during sleep  Stage 1: light sleep, eg. during movies, and easily woken up  Stage 2: Big jump in graph - Brain working to keep self asleep – working hard  Stage 3: Delta waves – deep sleep. Eg. Shake the person to wake them up o While sleeping, you have no awareness of what is going on around you - FALSE  Brain still processing information  Processing any information to wake up any time  In case of any danger, and to wake up  Eg. know not to crush baby when sleeping with them  Making out for danger  CAN block traffic and helicopters… … o REM Sleep  Rapid eye movements, dreaming and paralysis of motor  But muscles are actually not moving  Slow wave sleep and delta wave sleep, we can also dream  REM dreams – usually can report what they dreamt of  Crazy bizarre dreams  Why? – different parts of brain are active during different times of sleep o Why do we sleep? Is it a godo thing? Do we need it to learn  Body needs it to restore ourselves  Restful period to restore our bodies for next motion stage  Keep us inactive during the time of day when we are the most vulnerable  Humans depend eyesight – sleep during night, keep us safe during our most vulnerable time of day  make connections and consolidated anything learned 2013-04-15  sleeping, some dream of tasks and homework, which improves it, its like practicing even during sleep o Consuming alcohol will help you sleep better – FALSE  Although can help sleep faster – it damages the quality  Lightens sleep  Messing us up  Creates an illusion of sleep  Proportion of REM sleep is smaller  Wake up more frequently  Trouble returning to sleep  Hypnosis o Ability to block out any distractions and focus on one thing better o Are they doing what hypnotize is telling to do? Or is there a really change of mind o Lead to an altered state of consciousness, can change how the brain works when hypnotized  Meditation o Concentrative meditation:  Focusing on one thing only and blocking any other distractions o Mindfulness:  Let thoughts flow freely  Let one thought flow to another then another  Paying attention by not reaction gto them  Long term can decrease stressful activities and responses Sensations:  Detections of stimuli out there in the world Perception  Involves internal brain activities – how we process it in our brain 2013-04-15 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION  Everything is experienced THROUGH YOUR BRAIN  Sensory systems – evolved to detect change Sensation  All about the brain and how it process it o Light waves o Pressure on skin o Chemicals in the air o Sound waves o Chemical foods o ALL THESE MAKE UP EXPERIENCE OF STIMULAI OF EXPERIENCE OUT THERE  Going from world to brain o Transduction: o Smell – oldest sense – doesn’t go to thalamus – have been around for millennia  How much of something does there have to be for us to notice it o Psychology experience of physical stimuli o Looking at limits of the human system o 2 types of sensory threshold  Absolute  min. intensity of stimuli which we can experience  so the softest sound, lightest touch  from actually tasting nothing to tasting a little of it  Difference threshold:  Just noticeable difference between two stimuli – minimum amount for a person to detect a difference  Signal detection theory o Dealing with something ambiguous information  Requires us to make a judgment  Takes human judgment as a component  Response bias: 2013-04-15  Different situations can lead to different response bias  Sensory Adaption o Eg. step into a very cold pool – but then 5 minutes later, the pool don’t feel cold anymore, adapted to it o New smells – brain looks out for danger – when nothing dangerous happens – brain notices and states that it is safe, and do not need ot waste energy noticing the smell anymore Sensing Chemicals  Taste o Taste buds process chemicals and send it to brain  Composed of 5 different qualities  Sweet  Salty  Sour  Bitter  Umami (savory)  Taste receptors located throughout the entire tongue and not just different part of the tongue  Dislike and like the taste of something comes from the brain  Smell and texture  Can affect the brain of not liking it when the taste is fine  Smell o Membrane where all the smell receptors receive smells and sends to the olfactory epithelium o Smell something – prefrontal cortex determine if it smells good or not o Bad at identifying thing by smell alone  No other sensory information to help it get recognized  Touch o Receptors of pain found throughout body  Muscles  Joints 2013-04-15  Bones o Temperature receptors – may feel wet even if it is not wet because hot and cold are received at the same time o Below head – spinal cord – projected to primary somatosensory cortex o Phantom limb pain – arm is gone – protocol of where that brain is – causes pain  Hasn’t adjusted yet that the limb is no longer part of that body o Fast myelinated fibres  Harp immediate pain o Slow nonmyelinated fibres  Dull steady pain  Brain – “I’m damaged, start to heal me” o Pain is there to tell us something is wrong  Gets our attention to stop what we are doing  Our limit of what we can do  People with who can’t feel pain usually die younger and faster  In order for pain to be experienced – pain receptors and neural gate must be activated and allowed to travel to the brain telling the brain that something hurts and something is wrong. o Small pain receptor fibres – spinal cord “gate” – if receptors working, then some pain – distractions (brain sends signals to the gates and closes the gate so signals of pain are stopped) – only minor palins  gate closed by distractions  eg. Bug bites and scratches – doesn’t bother us during the day, but it is very severe at night – lying there, there is no distractions, thus focusing on pain and uncomforts o other fibers can block the pain receptor fibers – like rubbing the injured place Lecture 6 20/09/2012 08:11:00 Vision:  cornea – lets light through – refraction and focus of light – cannot accommodate for things like the lens  lens – process of accommodation – move the lens to focus on different things – near and far things  retina – holds our photo receptors  optic nerve – carry visual messages to the brain Accommodation  Flattening it to focus on – far target blurred  Near sighted – lens more round – blurred close objects Photoreceptors  Detecting stimuli and transducing it into a signal the brain is able to understand  RODS: o Found more on the outsides of the eye o Low levels of night – black and white vision  Allows us to see at night and dim lights o CONES:  Focus on details and focus on color vision Visual Transmission  Rods and cones o Transduce light waves into signal stimuli that the brain can respond and interpret o Gather information from rods and cones and helping it process it to the ganglion cells o Ganglion cells – form optic nerve  Bundled together – signal leaving the eye and going to the thalamus o Thalamas goes to the primary visual cortex – primary visual processing area  Goes to 42 distinct areas of the brain  Brain works and process a lot of information in a short amount of time 2013-04-15  So important and vital to our sense o Dorsal – where  Relevant to you, space, and relation to other objects o Ventral – what  Recognizing what object is  Determining colour and shape and size Vision: Receptive Fields  Type of information that excites the neuron  Ganglion cells receive different info from lots of different aspects  Light shines in the center – on centre cell – excited when light is shone – firing more rapidly  Distinguish what different objects are – telling us the boundary of where the objects are Lateral inhibition  Distinguish between neighboring cells Color perception:  Three different cones o S cones – short wavelength - blue o M cones – medium wavelength – green o L cones– long wavelengths – red  Ratio of three different cones how our eyes focus and distinguish colors Object perception  Proximity o The closer 2 figures are – the likely we are to see them as part of the same object  Similarity o Tend to group things together according to how closely the resemble each other  Good continuation o Tend to see continuation even if something is blocked - we assume it is a single object 2013-04-15 Vision: object perception  Closer o Tend to complete images that are otherwise incomplete  Illusory contours o See it – something in the figure that implies the figure IS there o Clues that tend us to see something that is not there o Deciding what is the figure and what is the background – once we see it as a background we can’t see the object – if we see the object, we can’t see the background o Can’t see both objects at the same time Bottom-up and top-down processes  Bottom-up processing o From basics to unified poles – eg. Vertical line and horizontal line here so it’s a T  Top-down processing o See what the brain thinks makes sense – informing viewing same figure differently because brain likes to make sense  Eg. We see things tat are individual chunks together – do not like to see things separately Depth perception  Binocular (retinal) disparity o Images in the brain are 2 very distinct images – from the 2 different eyes o Merging cues from right and left eye together  Monocular depth cues o Perspective, up-low, high-down – so we can understand the 3D view of the picture  Motion cues for depth perception o Relative motion emotions  Objects that are further moves slower  Above fixation point – move in the same direction 2013-04-15  Below the fixation point – moving in the opposite direction Motion perception  Motion sensitive neurons o Some neurons are sensitive to neurons – motion after effects o Compensate for head and eye motion – when a specific neuron is over used – some other neurons take over  Stroboscopic movement – still images moving in rapid succession  Eg. Cartoon flip book Lecture 7 20/09/2012 08:11:00 Attention  Selective – pay attention to it, we have to notice  We can’t pay attention to everything and all at the same time o Adaptive o Functional o For our attention to be attention o Why we can’t multitask o Don’t have enough potential resources o Not encoding what is not important o Eg. Watch – we don’t pay attention to the details of our watch, we don’t need to know what and how it is other than the TIME o Eg. 20 dollars, care only about value, don’t need to know the rest  Change blindness o Common failure for people to notice relatively large changes in the environment  Visual attention – visual search tasks o Search for a particular feature – one feature o Eg. Computer screen full of different items  Looking for a blue circle – but we don’t need to know the circle – just need to be blue – looking at all of the features and processing all at the exact same time – all together – just one feature – it pops up at us which we can do really quickly  All other circles are distractors – all other distractors does not matter – still find blue dot just as fast as if there are a few – parallel fashion of noticing it all at once and choosing what to notice o Serial processing - Searching for 2 or more features  Eg. Orange square  Not have it pop out at us  We have to search and process two things at once – bigger and more distractors the more time it takes us to notice  Selective listening 2013-04-15 o Difficult to pay attention to everything at once o Cocktail party phenomenon  At a party and talking to a lot of people – focusing on one person while blurring other people out  Hear my name even if we’re not paying attention  Certain things will grab our attention even if we focus on another person talking o Shadowing  Two messages in two different headphones to both ears  Told to pay attention to only one message – right side of the ear – repeat what is said to that one side of the message  Usually reports that person did not have conscious awareness of what was announced in the other ear  Ask them to repeat what they said – they will interpret it in a different way - two ear messages combined Models of Memory  ENCODING PHASE o Information hat we’re getting (audiitroy…) acquired as a code and processed into a ueral code for the brain to understand  STORAGE PHASE o Store information for a second? Or the rest of our lives? o Saving information on our hard drive  RETRIVEVAL PHASE o Recall information we stored and try to remember the information that we stored somewhere  Sensory memory o Brief memory of just what we heard  Eg. Friend talks and says your not listening – you say the last few words the friends were talking about  Evidence of sensory neurons firing  Not considered memory  Short-term or working memory – works interchangeable o Pay attention to o Try to remember it 2013-04-15 o Short term memory o Not faded right away o Remain for about 20-30 seconds unless we actively rehearse that information  Like repeating phone number or licence plate o HOW MUCH INFORMATION CAN WE REMEMBER  Remember 7 plus/minus 2 working digits  Why phone numbers is 7  Amount of information we can hold in our memory  CHUNKING  Chunk numbers together inorder to rememeber it  1800 - as one chunck  555 – as a chunk  not like an amount of diits o 4 COMPONENTS  phonological loop  auditory information  visuospatial sketchpad  visual information – paying attention to where everyone else is relative to me  episodic buffer  make processed information understandable  central executive  coordinates information if we need it for our long- term memory – pulls pieces of information from our long term memory to help our long term memory  LONG TERM MEMORY o permanent storage of memory  difference in both duration and/or capacity  can last 30/40 minutes or entire life  unlimited capacity to remember pieces of information o SERIAL POSITION EFFECT  Primary effect  Better remembering items presented at the beginning 2013-04-15  recency effect  Better remember items presented at the end of the list  Middle of the list tend to be forgotten easity o MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL  Repeating over and over again  Not processing very deaply  Not connecting it to things that we know  Not connecting it to ourselves  Just repeating it o ELABORATIEV REHEARSAL  Encoding information in more meaningful ways  Lings to knowledge in long-term memory  Eg. Words that are foreign  Some were told to look and remember it in different ways  Acoustice group  recalling with the sounds  Semantic group  Recalling words in our own language – translating o EXPLICIT MEMORY  Things that I know that I know  I know that I can recall them  Can remember what happened  Knowledge that I have that I can declare  Know we have the memory there  EPISODIC MEMORY  Remember specific experiences of my life  What I did  SEMANTIC MEMORY  Jeopardy question type things  Information that we just know  Facts about the world  We know the information 2013-04-15  We know we have this information - dealing with different types of memory  IMPLICIT MEMROY  Things we didn’t know that we know  CLASSICAL CONDITION  Knowing what associates with what  REPETITION PRIMING  Identify what we just seen  PROCEDURAL MEMORY  Know how to do it  But hard to describe and remember  Piano playing  May not specially declare – but we have it  Muscles remember what to do even when brain is failing us at the moment  OTHER TYPES OF MEMORY o PROSPECTIVE MEMORY  Remember to do something in the future  Or automatically activated like seeing something as a reminder  Or repeating it over and over again What are memories?  Memory is NOT a recording – it is a construction o Mental representations o Not picture perfect recordings in the past o Neurons firing in your brain = memory o Organized according to meaning o Memories are constructed – how we look at things = how we remember it o We don’t remember things in alphabetically order – not functional – remember because of something – meaning  ASSOCIATION NETWORKS o Nodes – individual information  Remember things of how they are linked  Fire engines are red 2013-04-15  What colour are apples? React really fast because it is already activated from the fire engine – spreading activation  SCHEMAS o How we perceive information o Relate to something or else everything will be jumbled an everything o Bias our memory – jumbled paragraph – telling the topic clears everything up o Remember things or believing things that are not there because we bias what we hear and see Long-term Memory: Information Organizaiton  RETRIEVAL CUE o Something that helps someone recall information from memory o Coating the information with extra neurons to remember o Coated along with the experience will trigger rememberance of the memory  CONTEXT DEPENDENT MEMORY o Contex that im in when im try to recall the information where I encoded that same piece of information helps us to remember  Similar to location, odour, background music…  Scuba diver study  Learned a list of words while standing on land or underwater  On land or underwater  Recall words while on land of underwater  Learned words on land, recall on land  Land on land  Match or mismatch – encoding system  Recalled more words if the recall situation matched the encoding situation  Matched – more likely to remember 2013-04-15  Background music doing homework helps with test taking  Some participates had instrumentals in the background  Some had white noise in the background  Also match of mismatch  Recall info match the encoding music  Remember more of the words from instrumental music  Revisiting childhood home or school can trigger memory  Visualize the encoding environment  Picture yourself sitting at the desk encoding the information  Not physically , visualize – memory enhancing  Stress can interfere  Whether it reduces the recall of encoding  Tend to decrease  So stress does affect it  STATE DEPENDENT MEMORY o Internal state matched when during recall and encoding – also helps o Intoxicated – hide keys somewhere, sober don’t know where it was, intoxicated again – finds the key Lecture 8 20/09/2012 08:11:00 BIOLOGY OF MEMORY  Memory stored in different parts of the brain  MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBES o Didn’t affect memories that happened up until he did the surgery o Didn’t remember anything o Unable to form long-term memory o Lobe important for consolidating new memories o Still had some procedure memory  Even didn’t know remember do the test from day to day – don’t know that he did the test – but performance still increased day by day  Practice makes everything better  RECONSOLIDATION  Form new memories  Activate a new memory – that memory is constructed and reconstructed  Reconsolidated every time we to recall something  Telling story over and over again – story will usually be changed – like legends  HIPPOCAMPUS o SPATIAL MEMORY  Memory of physical environment – location of objects  Part of medial temporal lobe – learning the maps  FRONTAL LOBES o Working memory o Making plans o Making goals o Encoding any type of information o Forming links from immediate memory to long-term memory o Taking information from long-term memory and put it to use at the moment  AMYGDALA o Emotional evens or danger events o Recall sights o Sounds 2013-04-15 o Spatial o Words  CEREBELLUM o Procedural memory o How to ride the bike o Puff of air to the eye is like light or tone – conditioned to doing something  MEMORY MODULATORS o Neurotransmitters that weaken or enhance memory  Modulating our memories  Drug – blocks post-synaptic nephron activity – given to them after dramatic – reduce post traumatic stress disorder – how ethical are these things are? FORGETTING  PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE o Prior information (old memories) interfere with us retrieving new information/memory o Memory of old phone interfere memory of new phone number  RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE o New memories interfering with the old information  BLOCKING o Temporary inability to recall something that we know we know o Tip of the tongue – know what it is but just can’t recall it  ABSENTMINDEDNESS o Not remembering it because too shallow encoding o Failing to pay attention  MISATTRIBUTION o Forget who the source of the information o Forget exact place where o Forget circumstance that contributes with a memory o False fame test  List of names to remember  Famous in some degree o Sleeper affect 2013-04-15  Watching some infomercial  Disregarding the message  Forget what the source of the information was o SUGGESTIBILITY  Misremembering after being told misleading information o FALSE MEMORIES  Plant false memories for the person in the lab EYE WITNESS TESTIMONY  Tend to focus on weapons – what is threatening to me – not minor details like clothing, hair colour… THINKING AND INTELLIGENCE: PART I  How we represent knowledge?  MENTAL REPRESETAITONS o ANALOGICAL REPRESENTATIONS  Mental representations of some features  Hair, smile…  Mental images of many objects  Representations of the knowledge we already have  Manipulate the mental images o Eg, how to rearrange furniture  o SYMNOLIC REPRESENTATIONS  Representaitons that does not have anything that an actual queen does – letters, doesn’t share any of the representations that the thing is sharing  Words – represent a lot of the information that we have  The fact  Knowledge  Not in a mental image  Words  CATEGORIZATION  Forming categories based on shared information  CONCEPT 2013-04-15  “chair” – smaller groups with different name chairs  “chair” small group – category furnitureBASIC  CATEGORIES  Most often used in conversation  Easiest  At the tip of the tongue  Easy to pronounce  Level of most thinking occur  Located in the middle of the hierarchy  Used most often  DEFININ ATTRIBUTE MODEL  Categorize with certain rules f specific attributes  Eg. Triangles associated with 3 sides and angles  Eg. Feathers, can fly…  Problems with the defining attribute model  Make exception to rules  Eg. Penguins – birds category even though o they cant fly  TYPE OF CONCEPTS o PROTOTYPE MODEL  Use prototypes  Objects are categorized to how closely related to the prototypes  Eg. Prototypical – best example of the particularly concept o EXEMPLAR MODEL  All members of categories to form concept  All the birds we have ever seen to form this concept  Eg. Something flys by – automatically think of it as a bird but it looks and relates more to a mammal 2013-04-15  SCHEMAS o Help us receive things o Organize things o Make sense of things in that world o SCRIPTS  Order of operations  Eg. Script for going to the restaurant  Function correctly at a restaurant  See hostess  Ask for table HOW DO WE USE KNOWLEDGE  To help us make decisions  Right or wrong  RESAONING o Determine if some statement received is valid or not o DEDUCTIVE REASONING  To do with going form general to specific  Eg. Thinking about a statement if it is valid or not o INDUCTIVE REASONING  Specific to general  Made untruthful statements therefor they hae a tendency to lie o Both have flaws – can lead us to faulty conclusions  DECISION MAKING AND HEURISTICS o Select the best option among the other several options o HEURISTICS  Making a decision to reduce amount of thinking to make decisions  Shortcuts  Eg. I’m a democrat so I’ll vote for democratic  BENEFITS OF HEURISITCS  AVAILABILITY HEURISITC  Estimating frequency of events   PROBLEM SOLVING 2013-04-15 o Blocking from reaching to a particular goal Lecture 10 20/09/2012 08:11:00 Representativeness Heuristic  Conjunction fallacy o Mistaken belief that finding overlap of two “things” o Ignoring the likelihood of things happening o There’s going to be a likely hood that there will be a feminist bank teller.  Anchoring Effects o Use the information that was given to them – a number, they will find numbers around that number o Use a piece of number that we already know to limit my response o Having some sort of reference to limit and have a smaller range of numbers  Framing Effects o The way it is introduced to us – changes the way we perceive it o Go to the positive one o Tend to go for sure gains o And when there are sure losses – we tend to gamble as we thing that it increases positive over negative o Loss Aversion  Losses hurt more than gaining Which job would you prefer  Choose the one with salary increasing even thought the overall is less than the one that is increasing – hates disappointment – tends to avoid it Affective Forecasting  Overestimate the extetnt Intelligence  Adapt to environmental hanges  Associate with intelligence  Different ways to study intelligence  Good at everything 2013-04-15  Good at a particular type of task IQ Test  Scores on IQ do help to predict  One of many factors that help us predict success  Factors including work ethics (hardworking0.  INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT o How well you score on this test compared to the big population of the others what has already taken it Types of Intelligence  GENERAL INTELLIGENCE (g) o One general factor explaining all intectual  FLUID INTELLIGENCE o Can decline in old age  CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE o Use knowledge I hall to solve stuff, how wlll  MUSICAL INELLIGENCE  MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES  EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EQ) o Social intelligence  Emphasize 4 things  Recognize and control own emotions  Recognizing emotions in other people  Stereotype threat o Lecture 11 20/09/2012 08:11:00 Motivation and Emotions  Different things that motivate behaviour  DRIVES o Motivate behavior that satisfies needs  Hunger  Motivate us to intake food and calorie  Thirst  Encourages us to go find something to drink o Drives arousal – to do the things the things we need to do to satisfy whatever needs  NEEDS AND DRIVES o Physiological needs  Satisfy needs at the bottom of triangle – need for survival – food and water o SAFETY NEEDS  Security – roof over head o BELONGINGNESS AND LOVE NEEDS  To belong in a group o ESTEEM NEEDS  Do things that make us feel good  Accomplishment feeling o SELF-ACTUALIZATIN  Ultimate level of happiness – fulfilling the purpose we are here for  Doing things we are supposed to be doing  not only from internal drives that guide our behaviour o external stimuli – INCENTIVES  food tasting good  satisfy pleasure  EATING? o What do we choose to eat – what determines what we eat  Different cultures – different foods – different specialties  Where we grow-up affects largely what we eat  What we eat when  Go to have breakfast 2013-04-15  Expect what we have for breakfast  Eggs, bacon, toast etc.….  Different diets like not eating pork o When do we eat?  Eat when hunger  Get hungry roughly at the same time?  Arbitrary time of day – 12:00 is lunch time  Signals o WHY?  Different signals in our brains  Hypothalamus in eating  Signaling “hey you’re full”  Outer region of hypothalamus  Tells us to eat  HYPERPHAGIA o Can’t stop eating o Just eat and eat  APHAGIA o Won’t eat o Until they starve unless force fed  Stomach growls – when empty  Full stomach  LEPTIN  Hormone – released from fat  Tells us to stop eating or to eat according to the fat hormone  GRELIN  Hormone released from stomach  Surge when we go up and die down when ull  Grelin goes up and down  Short term cycles  Goes up and down depending how hungry we are  GLUCOSTATIC THEORY  Monitoring glucose levels in the blood stream 2013-04-15  Need glucose for a lot of functions of the body  LIPOSTATIC THEORY  Set point for body fat o HOW MUCH?  Great variety  When there’s more food, tend to eat more  Increase lard portions  Plate sizes  Drives -> Arousal  Arousal ->motivation  Motivation -> Performance o The harder the test – the more aa  EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION o Do something because there’s some kind of exernal  INTRINSIC MOTIVATION o Doing it because it is something something we want to do  SELF-REGULATING o Regulating things I need to do to obtain various o Pursuit long-term o Do homework, study o Is like a muscle o If we do it all the time – we will be able to do it o AS A LIMITED RESOURCE o DELAYED GRATIFICATION  Predict other things later on in life  Ex. Marshmallow kids  Strategies  Hot cognition  Thinking marshmallow as a sweet, good snack  Cold cognition  Thinking it as rocks  SEX o Where does homosexuality originate  Hormones as a fetus affects homosexuality later in life 2013-04-15 o SEXUAL STRATEGIES THEORY  Men  More likely to do things related to sex throughout their lives, may drop with old-age  Value attractiveness  Biology innateness  Attractiveness o Has offspring that will have better genes  Women  More selective, less of it  Value money and productivity and care  Innateness  Prepare and care for offspring  SEX AND LOVE o When in love – brain activity is like having cocaine – like drugs o Sex – amygdala o Different parts of the brain becomes activated when emotions are different o Love – positive emotion o Periods of romantic love - connected with emotional periods  Activates reward areas of the brain o DOPAMINE – produce state of euphoria  Reward – being with loved one etc. …  EMOTIONS o Particular reactions to particular events o Angry, mad at someone o Afraid of someone o Different from mood – something is going on and is in a bad/good mood – not associated with someone o Emotions are important  Adaptive  Have emotions on something that happens  Alter cognition  Negative emotion 2013-04-15  Narrow our attention  Focus on particular things  Bad at focusing – focusing all attention on things that threaten us  Positive emotion  Associated with creative  Finding solutions to problems  Get stuck on problems o Get angry and get frustrated o Best to take a break  Emotion trigger action tendneces  Positive emotion o More global features of it – global shape o Creativity, exploring – everything is okay go out and be creative and enjoy  Negative emotion o Focused on local characteristics – what it is made up of o Anger and fear – promote attack o Associated with withdrawal tendencies – sadness  SOMATIC MARKERS  Gut reaction to things  Something we do is bad o Bad action  Feeling good o Good action  Eg. Choosing cards from different cards o 2 decks are good decks o either win or lose money o they didn’t know – just choosing o limited losses – decent gains o bad decks – losing much more money if we lose o picking decks 2013-04-15 o after about 10 cards – people have negative physiological emotions – they know there are something wrong – physiological response – thinking that it may be a bad card o only about after 50 cards, that one of it is a bad deck o ADAPTIVE – good signals of good things  EXPRESSIONS of emotions  Show other people  Read emotional expressions of others  Mom – proud of us  Social features – figure it out o TYPES OF EMOTIONS  PRIMARY (0r basic) EOTIONS  Recognizable emotions – no matter of what culture or country  Happiness, sad, anger, fear, disgus, surprise  SECONDARY emotion  War, etc… o  Subjective  Communicative o Darwin’s idea o Can recognize facial expressions o Basic expressions that are universal o Cultural – shaping our emotional expressions o Originally – emotions – physiological cues o Fear – alerts other people of potential threats o DISPLAY RULES  Emotional expressions do differ in different cultures  Identification is better in the same cultures o CROSS CULTURAL EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIONISM  Individualism and emotional expression  Individualism 2013-04-15  Positive emotionalism  Show happiness and surprised  Express social emotions in family and friend groups  Out-groups – potential enemies  Don’t want to show sadness b/c = weakness  Okay to express content and disgust but not so much to in-group  Involve physiological and cognitive components  EMOTIONS AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS o Need to belong  Humans = social creatures  Survive in groups  If not part of a group  starved  can’t survive on our own  need to reproduce  lack of social contact  loneliness and despair  talking to a pet/inanimate person  need to associate with a human – any source  sensitive to rejections  anything that rejects affects us even strangers or non-humans o interpersonal emotions  guilt  really have to do with relationships  strengthen relationship in 3 different ways  stop doing things that would affect other people  promote us to go out and do things  go do nice things for people  show guilt  people are able to see that we feel guilty  we are sorry  strengthen relationship 2013-04-15  effective to get people what they (advertisements) want  infomercials – guilt mothers into getting it  different people experience emotions different ways  some people feel more intense emotions  ALEXITHYMIA o Don’t have subjective emotional express o Don’t experience the emotion o Don’t feel sad, angry, happiness, when is the time to feel that emotion  CIRCUMPLEX MODEL OF EMOTION  Emotion o Positive o Negative o Pleasurable o Non-pleasurable  VALENCE o How positive/negative the emotion is  ACTIVIATION o How arousing the emotion is o DEPRESSION  Negative affect in low arousal o THEORIES OF EMOTION  Do we experience emotions to stimuli to events or along with the experience  THREE COMPETING THEORIES OF EMOTIONS  JAMES-LANGE THEORY o William james o Physiological experiences lead to different emotional experiences o Feel afraid because we tremble o Lion – physiological emotion – fear o FACILA FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS 2013-04-15  Forming expressions lead to emotions in our expressions  If we smile, things will be better even if we force our self to smile  People feel better when activating the smile muscles even when they are not producing an actual legitimate or actual smile  CANNON-BARD THOERY Lecture 12 20/09/2012 08:11:00 Chapter 10 + 11 James-Lange Theory  Experience emotions based on our bodies physiological autonomic response system  Symptoms – maybe experiencing fear, sadness Cannon-Bard Theory  Subjective feeling of “I’m scared” o Happen simultaneously or really close together Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory  Cognition matters as well  Event in the environment o Response – physiological o Cognitive appraisal  Why I’m scared  “he’s going to eat me, I’m scared”  Schachter & 1962 o Injected people with drugs o Given injections of adrenaline or placebo o Told that you would react to the drugs o Told participants what to expect o Confederate – pretending to be another person, but he really is part of the experimenter o Filling out surveys  Misattribution can actually occur o Miscommunicating, that the scary feelings are actually attractive arousal Human Development  Developmental psychology o Physiological o Cognitive o Social changes o The FIVE SENSES 2013-04-15  Sight  We aren’t born with ability to see as well now when we were a baby  See little – focus on what is the most important – caregiver and milk  FOCUS ON MOTHER AND MILK  Most important for survival o Smell o Sound o Taste o Touch o REFLEXES  Grasping  Rooting  Sucking  LEFT over survival instincts from prime mate anscestors  ATTACHMENT o Infant reliant on caregiver for survival o Useless when we come into the world o Close proximity to mother o Oxytocin – encourage attachment  Cuddle hormone  Infants breastfeeding  Female stress response  Stress hormone  Building strong emotional bond  Persistent across time o Imprinting  First 18 hours of a duckling’s life – critical period  Following an adult  Think it is a caregiver  CRITICAL PERIODS  Certain biological time points to learn certain abilities  If they don’t learn it at that period – they may never be able to learn it anymore 2013-04-15  SENSITIVE PERIODS  Easier for us to pick up some certain skills at certain times  Easier to learn languages at a younger age  More relaxed for humans – we can still learn whatever we want at anytime  HARLOW’s STUDY o Mom as milk Vs. Mom as comfort o One mom with milk only o One mom with comfort only  Baby monkey choose?  Comfort mom way more important  With humans? o Strange-situation test  Mom leaves at some point and returns  What does the child do when mom leaves? And what happens when mom returns o SECURE ATTACHMENT  65% of children are upset that they are alone  greet mom happily and go back to the toys  SEPARATION ANXIETY – 8-12 months – old enough to crawl – leaving mom  Easily comforted when mom comes back o AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT  Little distress  Doesn’t really care  When mom comes back  No reaction  Just ignore caregiver  ANXIOUS/AMBIVALENT ATTACHMENT o Distraught when caregiver’s come back o Confused response when caregiver comes back o Resistance to comfort but wants comfort o Approach caregiver but kick them o Ambivalent resistance reaction  Caregiver’s might be causing the problems for the children 2013-04-15  Maybe they ignore them  But can’t say that mother are to blame Cognitive Development  Stages of cognitive development o Schemas  During each stage of develpments (4 stages) child distinguishing different schemas  Thinking about how the world works  Use schemas or change our schemas o SCHEMAS  ASSIMILIATION  Assimilating new experiences into a schema that already occurs  When something doesn’t fit in another schema  Modify and ACCOMMODATE with the new schemas o FIRST STAGE  Birth – 2 years old  Child is only acquiring information through their senses  Only touch and see  Distinguish things between things and behave in certain ways  Difference between nipple and toys (sucking)  Development of OBJECT PERMANENCE  Objects still continues to exist even if we can’t see or sense them  Mom not here, doesn’t mean she is not here anymore o SECOND STAGE  PREOPERATIONAL STAGE  Begin to think symbolically – form categories  Think of things like if I have a dog  Think of the dog they have at home  Cow says dog  Mom says it’s a cow not a dog  Form new schemas 2013-04-15  Lack of knowledge  No understanding of law of quantity  Development of language developed at this point  Egocentric – think about themselves  Not developed period of them  Think that everybody is thinking what they are thinking o THIRD STAGE  CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE  Step out of there shoes and see what their perspective is  2-7 they don’t understand that what you are able to see does not mean that the other person can see the same thing  7-12 can start to distinguish that there is different aspects o FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE  Think abstractly  not limited to concrete  think logically  reason abstractly  think symbolically  work through problems  childrens can achieve things earlier or later  universal? Or certain kids and culture growing up  some of these problems – some of problems can be solved indifferent ways which children at different ages can do. Lecture 13 20/09/2012 08:11:00 Cognitive Development  How do we know that the infants and toddlers know about the world?  Preferential looking technique o Difference two objects o Spend time looking at a specific object – refers they like it more o Infants spent time looking the new object o Attention drawn to it o Looking at a object they haven’t seen before than something they are used to o Primate faces to babies  Under 6 months and over 9 months  Babies can tell the difference of primates – monkeys while 9 months above can’t  Babies have more synapses  They have skills to recognize but is lost  Brain losses or uses  No use? Lose.  Specialize on human faces o Important for us to know  Orienting reflex o  Memory retention test o Tie string a string on baby o Baby kick string – mobile move o Next day? o Do they remember the next day o The older the baby the better the memories – longer the memories would last o Infantile amnesia o Earliest memory 3-5 years old o Usually dramatic memories are more intensive and severity for memory especially when they are little o Young children confabulate – making up stories and making up memories 2013-04-15  Fantasies – aliens, superpowers, humans … o What will babies spend more time looking at  Infants spend more time looking at two rods – spend more time at it – same logics as adults  Understanding the laws of nature o Physics o Mathematics o Spend time looking at events that are surprising o Such as something that doesn’t make sense o Surprising to use = surprising to infants o Conservation of quantity  Two cups full of water – same  One cup into taller skinnier cylinder – say more water in the taller cylinder  Laid marbles together – clustered and spread out  But said that longer one is more even though more spread out  Replaced marbles with m&m’s  Motivated – pick m&m’s longer  Although shorter  More likely to pick it because there is more m&m’s – they know  Infants know more about the world then we have originally thought Social and Identity Development  Parents vs. peers o Whose more important? o Parents or peers  Starting to go to school – kindergarten  Does this affect how they turn out? o Judith Rich Harris  Though parents was nothing  Strong influence purely by peers  Others think that what we learn inside home is just inside the home 2013-04-15  What we learn outside is reflecting on how we are in the future as adult  People thought it was ridiculous  BUT PARENTS DO MATTER o Parents – steer you to certain friends  Bann friends of bad influence  Same as teachers o Both very influential of our behaviour social behaviour and adults  Impact of divorce o What are the impacts of divorce on children? o How bad is it?  Negative implications – lots of negative outcomes  Correlational research  Not all children cope badly  Children older and more mature cope more finer o Living with both parents who aren’t divorced but always fighting is WAY WORSE  Lots of disruptions and arguments at home  Way worse than divorce? o Why is divorce with so many negative outcomes?  Most children raised by mom  Financial problems because father has financial support  Lots of different factors  How impactful  Associated with them not happen to all of them  Gender Identity o Figuring out who you are as a person o Gender identity o Racial identity o Sense of self and self-identity o Beliefs about ourselves to believe if we are male or female  If we are not a gender – how does it affect us?  What if we were the other gender  Gender – key component to be who we are  Gender roles 2013-04-15 o Different from identity o Culturally defined norms  How we are supposed to be our genders  How we are supposed to enjoy our genders  Examples are toy stores  Pink and Barbie’s for girls  Truck and swords for boys  Learn really early – what we are SUPPOSED to play  Later on we learn boys are supposed to be fight  Girls are supposed to be lad-like  Schools – influence  Idea of what we are supposed to be like  Gender schemas o How we think about females of males  What determines a gender? o Biology and environment is important o Biology  Tragic case: Brian  Twin boys born 1966  First parents brought in to get circumcise  First boy has no penis o Parents trying to figure out what to do with the boy o Have him have a sex reassignment and try to make him into a biological girl  Did not work  He felt like a boy – who he was  Became a man  Gender is a biological component – even if we don’t act different or don’t have the parts we still know what gender we should be o Gender identity disorder  Biological female or male but feel like we are the other  Doesn’t feel right 2013-04-15  Different body  Transgender  Racial identity or ethnic identity o Recognize, associate ourselves with our ethic groups o Figure out who we are in terms of racial and ethic identity o Mixed racial identities  More often o Small infants can discriminate race  Different skin colours  Prefer the race they are most familiar with  Looking for similarity  Even as young infants Adulthood and Aging  Development doesn’t stop when reached adulthood  Never stops in our life  Erikson’s stages of identity o Every stage has different developmental challenge  Young adulthood  Intimacy vs. isolation  Getting married  Partner  Building friendships  Relations  Builds support and family  Middle adulthood  Generativity vs. stagnation  Having a career that helps other people  Leaving something behind or contributing something to the world  Old age  Integrity vs. despair  Looking back in life  Being happy with life
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