Class Notes (837,186)
Canada (510,155)
Psychology (3,528)
PSY100H1 (1,637)

Chapter 9.doc

10 Pages
Unlock Document

Ashley Waggoner Denton

Chapter 9- Motivation and Emotion Motivation: factors that energize, direct, or sustain behaviour • Motivation states are… • Energizing- activate/arouse behaviour ex: desire for fitness go to gym • Directive- guide behaviours toward satisfying specific goals or needs ex: hunger motivates eating • Persistent- people persist until goals met, needs satisfied • Motives differ in strength- depending on internal/external factors Need: state of deficiency, which can either be biological (water) or social (need to belong to a group)  goal directed behaviours Maslow “need theory” of motivation (fig. 9.2) • Humans are driven by many needs need hierarchy • Base: survival needs – need to be satisfied first • Top: personal growth/self-actualization • Supports humanistic theory- people strive toward personal fulfillment, continually trying to improve ourselves Self-actualization: a state that is achieved when one’s personal dreams and aspiration have been attained Limitation to hierarchy- protestors that starve themselves for their personal beliefs Needs Arousal drive behaviour Arousal: psychological activation Drives: psychological states that encourage behaviours that satisfy needs • Cannon- homeostasis • Hull- a drive increased in proportion to the amount of depreciation (hungrier you are, more driven you are to find food) • Any behaviour that continually reduces a drive becomes a habit Incentives: external objects or goals that motivate behaviours, don’t satisfy biological needs Ex: getting a good grade, eating extra piece of pie already full • Subliminal cues can affect our incentives (watching smoker on TV want to smoke) Yerkes-Dodson Law • Inverted U theory, optimal level of arousal for performance Freud- Pleasure Principle • People seek pleasure (hedonism), try to avoid pain • Don’t always engage in behaviours to seek biological needs • Evolutionary significance: sweet= pleasurable, also protective as bitter things such as flowers, toxins, etc. often poisonous Extrinsic motivation: motivation to perform activity because of external goals Intrinsic motivation: motivation to perform an activity because of the value of pleasure associated with that activity • Help satisfy our natural curiosity and creativity Vallerand- behaviorus that satisfy needs for competence, autonomy, relatedness • If activities consistent with how people see themselves enjoyment, passion shape personal identity • Extrinsic rewards can interfere with instrinsic motivation • Lepper- give kids markers, rewarded group less likely to colour during free-play when not rewarded anymore Psychological reactance: motivational state that arises when our feelings of personal freedom are threatened Try to regain freedom, obtain whatever is being withheld Ex: something that you can’t have, you want more Self-determination theory • People are motivated to satisfy needs for competence, autonomy (sense of personal control) and relatedness • Extrinsic rewards might reduce intrinsic value- people no longer doing it for themselves (autonomy, competence) • Self-perception theory (Bem)- people seldom are aware of their specific motivates and instead draw inferences about their motivations according to what seems to make the most sense Ex: Henry Murray- proposed 27 basic psychosocial needs including needs for power, autonomy, achievement and play • People are especially motivated to achieve personal goals= self-regulation Bandura- people’s personal expectations for success influence motivation • Self-efficacy: expectancy that your efforts will lead to success • ↑ self-efficacy- more motivated you are to do something well (↑achievement motivation) Delayed gratification: process of transcending immediate temptations to achieve long term goals (eating 1 marshmallow right away or waiting a bit, getting 2) • Mischel study- children that were able to delay gratification at age 4 more socially competent, better able to handle stress, ↑SAT scores • Delayed gratification strategies turning hot cognitions (pleasurable) into cold ones • Mentally transforming tempting pretzel log Baumeister & Leary- need to belong theory • Need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes (help us live longer, avoid illness) • Mechanisms that detect group exclusion ex: sense that we’re being kicked out of group feel anxious Schachter study • Manipulated anxiety levels (told they would be administered painful shock vs. tickle) and then measured how much participants preferred to be around others • Those who were told painful shock (↑anxiety) more likely to want to wait with others, especially those who were also being administered shock • Social comparison theory: we compare ourselves to others around us, to test and validate our personal beliefs and emotional responses What determines what we eat? 1. Time- we eat not because deficient E stores but because we have been classically conditioned to associated eating with regular mealtimes • Clock= CS anticipatory responses that motivate eating behaviour, ↑insulin promotes glucose use, ↑short term hunger signals 2. Variety of food- eat more when ↑variety of food vs. 1 type • Sensory-specific satiety- animals will stop eating relatively quickly if they have just one food to wat, but will eat more if presented with a different type of food • ↑ activity in frontal lobe regions associated with assessing food reward value 3. Culture • Familiarity determines food preferences (eating it as kid, seeing parents eat it) • Neophobia- fear or new things/ new foods • Cultural preferences, religious/cultural values (Kosher, Muslim) Neural Processes involved in controlling eating • Hypothalamus: structure that most influences eating • Damaged to hypothalamus obesity • Damaging middle/ventromedial region of hypothalamus (VMH) causes rats to eat ↑ food= hyperphagia obesity • Damaged to outer/lateral area of hypothalamus (LH)  ↓ eating behaviour= aphagia • Regions of prefrontal cortex process taste cues such as sweet and saltiness • Limbic system- process info about food’s reward potential, region activated when craving a particular food • Damage to limbic system- Gourmand syndrome (people become obsessed with fine food and food preparation, not necessarily obese) Internal sensations- where do hunger signals come from? Glucostatic Theory: blood glucose levels constantly being monitored as glucose primary fuel for metabolism and neuronal activity sensitivity to ↓glucose levels=hunger Lipostatic Theory: set point for body fat, always try to return to homeostasis Leptin: involved in fat regulation, released from fat cells as more fat is stored (LT)  stop eating ST effects- also influences food’s reward properties Ghrelin: triggers eating (levels surge before meals), decrease after Biological Factors Influence Sexual Behaviour • Kinsey- greatest influence • Masters & Johnson- sexual response cycle 1. Excitement 2. Plateau 3. Orgasm 4. Resolution Hormones profoundly influence sexual activity • Influence physical development of brain and body (puberty secondary sexual characteristics) • Hormones influence sexual behaviour through motivation • Testosterone- involved in sexual functioning (availability more important than quantity) • Oxytocin- released during sexual arousal and orgasm Hormones regulated by hypothalamus- most important region for stimulating sexual behaviour NT • Dopamine receptors involved in pleasure response • Serotonin ↓ levels of sexual interest (depressed people on meds) • Nitric Oxide- result of sexual stimulation, which promotes blood flow to penis and clitoris, plays important role in sexual arousal Variations in menstrual cycle • Male hormones release at same rate • Female hormones released in accordance with menstrual cycle • Studies show that women evaluate men differently across the menstrual cycle • During ovulation, prefer men with more masculine faces Sexual scripts • Cognitive beliefs about how a sexual episode should be enacted (men should make first move, flirting, sequence of sexual acts, whether women should resist etc.) • Scripts differ in many places in the world Double Standards • Certain activities (premarital or casual sex) are morally and socially acceptable for men but not for women Sex difference in sexual motives • Men have higher levels of sexual motivation than women Buss’s sexual strategies theory • Differences in sexual motivation due to different adaptive problems face through human history • Women prioritize intensive care of small number of infants • For men- all matings have a reproductive payoff, few personal costs • Study with 96 university students approached by stranger of opposite sex • Both sexes equally likely to accept date • Men much more likely (3/4 vs. 0) to agree to have sex/ go home with stranger • Baumeister- erotic plasticity: extent that sex drive can be shaped by social, cultural and situational factors • Women have higher erotic plasticity than men, her sexuality may evolve and change through adult life vs. men- desires remain relatively constant Mating strategies differences between sexes • In general, men and women seek same things in their mates • Men place more emphasis on physical attractiveness, women more concerned with status, financial stability Homosexuality • Evolutionary theory: lesbians and gays act as “spare” parents to their sibling’s offspring (caring aunts and uncles), still ensure continuation of family genes • Levels of circulating hormones do not differ between heterosexual and homosexual individuals • Best evidence suggest exposure to hormones, especially androgens in parental environment might play some role in sexual orientation • Females, mother’s med condition causes ↑ levels of androgen (testosterone) to be expressed by dad more likely to become lesbian • No specific genes for sexual orientation • Twin studies reveal some evidence of genetic component especially in males • Conclusion: not causal evidence, all correlational evidence accumulated consistent with idea that biological processes play some role in sexual orientation Bem study- proposed that feeling different from opposite or same-sex peers predicts later sexual orientation, believes that people are attracted to what
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.