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Lecture 1

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Gillian Rowe

PSY220LECTURE 1Chapter 1 Introduction to StatisticsPopulations and SamplesThe entire group of individuals is called the populationex a researcher may be studying the relationship between class size and academic rdperformance for the population of 3 grade kidsUsually populations are so large that a sample is used to represent the population The goal is to use the results obtained from the sample to help answer questions about the populationex may sample 50 men and 50 women to test for sex differences in verbal memory performance Population characteristics are called parameters sample characteristics are called statistics Really interested in what happens in the population but usually can just test a sample of the populationS Ssample and statistics relatedVariablesA variable is a characteristic or condition that can change or take on different values Most research begins with a general question about the relationship between two variables for a specific group of individualstheres usually more than one variableDiscreteconsist of indivisible categories exactwhole numbersex number of kidsContinuousinfinitely divisible into whatever units a researcher may choose use decimalsex time can be measured to nearest minute second halfsecond etcReal LimitsTo define the units for a continuous variable a researcher must use real limits which are boundaries located exactly halfway between adjacent categories Ex you have a weight of 150 lower limit is 1495 and upper limit is 1505 to nearest poundIndependent vs Dependent VariableIndependent variable In an experiment its manipulated called a treatmentex in a study where the effect of a certain drug is on rats the IV is the amount of the drug given
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