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PSY210 Ch.8 Intelligence.docx

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Justin Mc Neil

PSY210 Ch.8 Intelligence 10/12/2012 6:18:00 AM Overview: 1. Definitions of intelligence 2. Recent advances in defining intelligence 3. Measuring intelligence 4. What do intelligence tests predict and how well? 5. Ethnic and socioeconomic variations in IQ 6. Explaining individual and group differences in IQ 7. Early intervention and intellectual development 8. Giftedness: creativity and talent Psychometric approach: to cognitive development is the basis for the wide variety of intelligence tests available for assessing children’s mental abilities.  Rather than focusing on the process of thinking (Piaget/Vygotsky)  Psychometric approach focuses on outcomes/results = product oriented 1. Definitions of intelligence: Is intelligence one characteristic or is it made up of many?  Alfred Binet: A holistic view. o Intelligence corresponds to chronological age of the child o Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale  The factor analysts: A multifaceted view o Factor analysis: to find out if intelligence is one trait or an assortment of abilities. It identifies sets of test items that cluster together, meaning that test takers who do well on one item in a cluster tend to do well on the others. Distinct clusters are called factors. o Early factor analysts:  General intelligence (g)  To correlated tasks in factors (clusters)  Measures abstract reasoning capacity  Specific intelligence  To make up for the difference between factors, needing specific skills unique to the task. o Contemporary extensions: (Spearman & Thurstone)  Combined both approaches of (g) + specific intelligence = hierarchical model of mental abilities.  Highest level = (g) measured by subtests, groups of related items. o Crystalized vs. Fluid intelligence (Cattel)  Crystalized = Culture  Skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgment, and mastery of social customs.  Abilities acquired as they are valued by ones culture o E.g. Language, Maths, General knowledge…  Fluid intelligence = Brain > Culture  Depends more on basic information processing skills  Ability to detect relationships among stimuli, the speed with which the individual can analyze information, the capacity of working memory. o Influenced more by conditions of the brain, less by culture  E.g. Supported by crystallization to perform effective reasoning, abstraction + problem solving. o The Three-Stratum Theory of Intelligence (Carrol)  Elaborates the models proposed by Spearman, Thurstone and Cattel. Carrol represented the structure of intelligence as having three tiers. 2. Recent Advances in Defining Intelligence  Need to identify the cognitive process responsible for doing well in intelligence tests  Combining Psychometric & Information-Processing Approaches o Componential analyses: of a children’s test scores, looking for relationships between aspects (or components) of information processing and children’s intelligence test performance.  E.g. children whose CNS functions more efficiently by taking info in faster, appear to have an edge in intellectual skills.  Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory: o Triarchic theory of successful intelligence:  Made up of 3 broad interacting intelligences:  1. Analytical intelligence (information processing skills)  2. Creative intelligence (capacity to solve novel problems)  3. Practical intelligence (application of skills in everyday situations)  Intelligence involves balancing all 3 intelligences to achieve success in life, according to ones personal goals and the requirements of ones cultural community.   Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences o Defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to solve problems, create products, and discover new knowledge in a wide range of culturally valued activities.  Dismissing the idea of (g), Gardner proposes at least eight independent intelligences.  Belief that intelligences are separate, not correlating  E.g. Savant syndrome  E.g. Children with autism  Similar to core knowledge perspective of Ch.7 Intelligence Processing Operations End-state Jobs Possible (Sensitivity to…) Linguistic Sounds, rhythms, Poet, journalist meaning of words = functions of language Logico-mathematical Numerical patterns, Mathematician long chains of logical reasoning Musical Pitch, rhythm, musical Musician, composer expression Spatial Visual-spatial world, Sculptor, navigator transformations on perceptions, recreate aspects of visual experience in the absence of relevant stimuli Bodily-kinesthetic Handle objects skillfully, Dancer, Athlete use body for skill, expressive, goal- directed purposes Naturalist Classify varieties of Biologist animals/minerals/plants Interpersonal Detect/respond to Therapist, salesperson moods, temperaments, motivations and intentions of others Intrapersonal Knowledge of oneself Person with detailed, accurate self-knowledge 3. Measuring Intelligence  Some commonly used intelligence tests: o The Standford-Binet Intelligence Scales:  Latest edition of his intelligence test measures general intelligence and five intellectual factors:  Fluid reasoning  Quantitative reasoning  Knowledge  Visual-spatial processing  Working memory  Usually measures crystalized (cultural) intelligence e.g. vocab/arithmetic problems  For children of different age categories to be compared against each other within their own group  2-30year olds o The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children  The (WISC-IV)  Used for 6-16 year olds  Four broad intellectual factors:  Verbal reasoning  Perceptual reasoning  Working memory  Processing speed  Designed to downplay crystalized intelligence (only ¼ - verbal reasoning), and mainly test fluid intelligence o Aptitude and Achievement Tests  Aptitude Tests: assess an individuals potential to learn a specialized activity  Achievement Tests: Aim to assess actual knowledge and skill attainment o Tests for infants:  Because infant scores do not tap the same dimensions of intelligence assessed in older children, they are conservatively labeled “developmental quotients (DQs)” rather than IQs.  Most infant measures emphasize perceptual and motor responses to stimuli  Early language/cognition/social behaviour  Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development  Not very reliable as infants become distracted, fatigued and bored during testing = so their abilities are not accurately reflected.  Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence  Staring time at old vs. new images  Useful for identifying infants who may be at risk for delays in mental development o Computation and Distribution of IQ scores  Intelligence quotient (IQ): indicates the extent to which the raw score (number of items passed) deviates from the typical performance of same-age individuals  Standardization: giving the test to a large, representative sample and using the results as the standard for interpreting scores.  Normal distribution: most scores cluster around the mean, with progressively fewer falling toward each extreme.  Bell shaped distribution 4. What do intelligence tests predict and how well?  Good indicators of future intelligence & scholastic performance? o Stability of IQ scores: How effectively IQ at one age predicts itself at the next.  Correlational stability: Correlate scores obtained at
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