PSY210 - lecture 3
- meaning system is a collective historical product. e.g. language. (enculturation)
- presume there is universal ability to move among cultures
- our biology prepares us for the ability.
- we are the product of non-teleological (working towards) process. it is non-optimal. it
has a huge impact on our psychological development.
- e.g. we settle on a contradictory situation as we are at risk during reproduction.
head is too large for birth canal. it is not a good reproductive model. humans are
born premature. we then rely on our parents longer than most species hence
we need the needs for attachment and nurturing, which is an huge issue.
- evolution by natural selection --> dynamical system (a self-organizing system). some
say our brain operates as a dynamical system.
- siegler - children engage in this sub-organizing behaviour as they learn new
skills. child will always find a successful way to achieve its goal. they will intro-
duce variations, alternatives, and those strategies which hast most % of suc-
cess will be adopted by child.
- sees development emerges from a dynamical system. by looking at how
evolution by natural selection, we can achieve the principle of an analogy
of how we develop.
- evolution work by exaptations, evolution will take some existing
characteristics and modify it to adapt better to environment.
- our brain is a kludge design
- evolution is driven by exaptations.
- animals on the low end of the evolution ladder, mastication (moving tongue to eat), poi-
son detection. human had the same functions but has work by exaptations, and evolve
with adapting new functions, speech. - maclean - says brain is primitive, then has a new layer for more functions
through evolution. each new layer is running off older layers. e.g. you experi-
ence morally disgusting. it is an abstract idea (neo-cortex - outer layer) . this
idea, though, taps through the primitive machinery of the brain.
- mid layer (social)
- inner (survival)
- we are also driven by intra-psychic conflict
- development is driven by the attempt and resolve intra-psychic conflict.
- brain is a machine made up of machines, often in conflict with each oth-
er, which can make itself to a new kind of machine.
- bridges philosophical frameworks and psychological frameworks
- introduces the stages of development
- each stage causes the next stage that comes after
- fundamental insights of freud
- the concept of intelligent unconscious processing
- proposes that a lot of our cognition and behavior are operating intelligent-
ly completely outside of our conscious awareness.
- why are is it important?
- we all start off this way. babies don’t start off knowing your own
mind. babies are way more aware of other people’s mind than in-
trospecting themselves. ??
- another fundamental insight
- idea the development might be driven by intra-psychic conflict
- parts of the brain system has different priority. biology, social environ-
ment, abstract principles.
- they come into conflict dramatically, trying to resolve this conflict
drives cognition forward to development.
- Locke says its all nurture
- Rousseau says its nature
- freud is proposing interactionism
- propose that there is an mechanism (intra-psychic conflict) that drives interac-
tion between nature and nurture. dynamical interaction of biology and environ-
ment. - third insight
- idea of stages of qualitative devel