Age of child is important because certain tasks at certain ages are
appropriate and not.
2) This could explain #1). Influence of hormones they are experiencing.
They are more moody than adults and children. If you monitor mood for a
while, you see that it changes depending on environment there in. With
peers, or doing social activities they have high mood and during parent
direct activities, school activates they have low mood.
3) Frontal lobes haven’t developed yet – that happens in late 20s. Limbic
system is fully developed so they have full pleasure system without
consequence actions. This is where the risk taking behavior stems from
this. Most deaths from teens is accidents and that’s because they take
4) They take more risks. Crime has been decreasing. Most people (60%
Canadians) believe that crime in youth is increasing. We do have a belief
that adolescents are criminals.
We see this in both male and female development. FSH stays the same in
males but fluctuates in females based on their menstrual cycle.
1T 2F 3F (if a mother is authoritarian, girls will menarche early) 4T (homes
where fathers are not around, girls reach menarche early)
1) Gets women away from ideal women body image. Men get closer to
ideal male image.
This plays a role in self-esteem and body image.
2) Has different effects on men and women. Men should reach puberty
early tend to be better off, they are happier, date more often and have
higher self-esteem. Women who reach puberty early have greater mental
health problems, lower self-esteem, engage in sexual experiences earlier
and other risk taking behaviors like drinking and smoking.
1) Need to pay attention to calcium and iron levels in adolescents. Iron
linked with hemoglobin. Men with increased muscle mass you need to
watch iron and women losing blood through menstruation need iron.
2) Not an issue of how many calories they take (they get more than
enough calories) but lack proper nutrients.
3) Message isn’t being heard.
o Why are they not working? Risk taking, pleasure oriented, under a
lot of stress so eat unhealthy, in schools the target is on losing
weight not proper food for brain stimulation and feeling good.
o What types of program would you design to combat obesity?
Greater focus on healthy eating and where the food comes from (connection with food), target eating practices (certain number of
meals, looking at nutrition, physical activity).
1F (most common is eating disorder not specified) 2F (people with binge
eating have a binge but won’t purge or exercise after) 3T (very high
suicide rate, severe medical problems and small chance of recovery).
Binge 2 times a week for at least 6-month period. Binge characterized by
lack of control to stress about binge behavior, eating very rapidly large
amounts of food alone, no compensatory behavior. More common than
anorexia and bulimia.
1) Weight 15% among minimum height range.
3) Very thing but see something different. Delusion of being bigger than
4) Absence of regular menstrual cycle.
5) RT: restrict calories and most exercise but no binge/purge cycle.
BEPT: same characteristics but don’t eat much but still eating more than
they want but compensating by purging.
Greater cycle pathology, tend to come from families where more people
are overweight, more likely that they were overweight in childhood. When
we watch this over time we see people switch from RT to BEPT than the
other way around.
2) 5% who have been treated end up dying and 15% without treatment
end up dying. Some medical concerns: decreased blood pressure,
decreased heart rate, decreased bone mass and electrolytes. Less severe
symptoms such as dry skin, laguna (hair over body), hair loss and anemia.
People who dye is because of electrolyte.
4) 2wice as high as other psychological disorders. Risk factors for suicide
is the binge/purge subtype, history of childhood sexual assault,
1) Cannot control eating behavior. Describe binge as out of body
2) Anything to compensate.
4) The focus of their life is their body.
5) PT: vomit
NPT: other behaviors to compensate.
No difference between the two.
2) Substance use (getting increasing attention with eating disorders),
4) Electrolytes are an issue for those who vomit and use laxatives. Loss of
dental enamel. Slide 15
Eating disorder not otherwise specified.
3) The idea that what we believe of be feminine is someone who eats little,
petite and dainty. What we found desirable and attractive in women has
changes. This can infiltrate other cultures. While it is a western cultural
phenomenon, it is not the case anymore. There were 0 cases in Fiji but
after TV was introduced it spiked. Thinness is rooted in the media.
1) Medical treatment is not helpful for eating disorders except for bulimia.
Reduces binge eating but high drop out rates, relapse occurs with
discontinuation, not at all effective for anorexia. So therapy is used.
2) N: bulimic people need to eat 3 meals a day and a snack.
CBT: target distortion of body weight, body size.
FT: dysfunctional family with eating disorders. Not as a big as people
Expectations for men and women and how that is relevant from onset of
4) Out of those who are sexually active, 90% use contraception and 10%
1) They don’t think they can get pregnant, embarrassed about buying it,
lack of education on where to get it.
Slide Sex-Role Quiz
1-really unlike me 5- really like me