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THE ALTRUISM CONTROVERSY Is there such thing as “true” altruism? Voluntarily provide help when someone is needed and ask for no returns Is people be able to give out help without need reward Cons: when bill gates give out money, more living human more potential window users Providing helps to ppl feels good-positive enhancement Why do people help? 1. Learning-through direct persuasion such behavior has been reinforced 2.arousal 3.norms 1. Behaviourism: Helping is the by-product of the individual’s conditioning history. “altruism” vs. “prosocial behavior” 2. Arousal model: Cialdini et al. (1987) “negative state relief model”: several steps: 1. arousal-we feel arousal –it can be positive and negative—feeling energize 2. labeling that arousal with a particular emotion-cued by features in the environment (stressful) 3.the label that’s generated is cued by situational features Cialdini et al. (1987) found that people are less likely to help someone in a less severe situation if immediately before the opportunity to help they receive praise or money, or if people are led to believe that helping does not improve mood. Tie helping directly to the mood. Does Cialdini believe in pure altruism? NO vs. Batson (1991) “empathy-altruism hypothesis” sometimes true altruism exist 1. negative state relief does occur, but: 2. so can perspective-taking, which leads to “empathic concern”—being able to see the world through other person-perspective- taking ability, many people under certain age fail to do that, but when they grow up, some of them can do that. True altruism is often found in someone good at perspective-taking 3. there are individual differences: for a certain (significant) subset of subjects, receiving rewards before the helping opportunity did not diminish their likelihood of helping. Other emotion are evolved other than relief such as empathy. Batson (1981) -Upon arrival, Ps told that upcoming study involves people’s task performance under unpleasant conditions. One of the Ps will perform a task while receiving mild electric shocks, the other will observe. -Lots drawn (actually rigged) – you win, other “subject” (actually a confederate) loses, gets hooked up to a scary machine. -After receiving several “trial” shocks, “Elaine” squirms with pain, and tells the experimenter about a frightening childhood experience when she was thrown from a horse against an electric fence. -It’s more unpleasant for her than for the average person, but she’s willing to go on. -Then: Experimenter has the bright idea: (addressing confederate) “Maybe since your case is unusual, it would be better for you to trade places with the other subject?” -SO: Would subjects be willing to suffer in place of someone else? One independent variable: Ease of escape from watching): "Although the worker will be completing between two and ten trials, it will be necessary for the observer to observe only the first two."-easy escape condition vs. "The worker will be completing between two and ten trials, all of which the observer will observe." Hard escape condition All subjects then learned that Elaine agreed to complete all 10 trials, and they were given the chance to help her by trading places after the second trial. Therefore, in the easy-escape condition, subjects who did not help would not have to watch Elaine take any more shocks; in the difficult-escape condition they would. THE DESIGN: Empathic concern Ease of escape Hi Lo Difficult Easy Results - Regardless of whether it was easy or hard to escape watching Elaine suffer, the empathic group wanted to help and said they would take her place. - With low empathic concern, they only help when they have little choice - Those in the low empathy group only helped when it was difficult to escape watching her – they had little choice - Low empathy group most likely helped only because they’d feel bad having to sit through eight more shocks….did it to prevent feeling guilty - It is the combination of high empathy and EASY ESCAPE (easy NOT to help) that reflects true altruistic motivation. Summary of Batson’s model: Perspective Empathy Reduce other’s -taking distress Perception that someone needs help Not p-t Personal Reduce own distress distress many pple are helping are they helping for difft reasons? Cialdini’s new tack: “Oneness” • Sad • Sharing personal identity • The boundary between you and me are blur I am helping you but in fact I am helping me too because helping you is helping me too Yo Me u You You’re not sufferiYou’re suffering. 3…norms: responsibility: ppl are supposed to help ppl that are depended on them 2.reciprocral norm: ppl will help the ppl who help them buy more tickets in offering coke state third condition: experimenter bought the coke—indicate it is not the coke to lead buying more tickets WHO CARES? If someone rescue you from a burning building—if you know why-can bring out the helping behavior Intrinsic motivation—ppl do better with that organize our society-rewarding good behavior. BYSTANDER INACTION Presence of others can cause us to work hard or not hard-cause us cruel 38 people view the attack, no one call the police Latane & Darle
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