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PSY230 Lec#1

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University of Toronto St. George
Maja Djikic

PSY230 L1 Sept 14 2011 o Need coherence, relevance, comprehensiveness, [inherent] compellingness  Most ppl can suppress personality In strong situations Ex. Good vs. Evil  Low constraint situations  weak suppression Ex. at home, parties, w friends  Example essay intro: I find ___ a prob because ___. ___ can help with this problem according to his ___ theory so  Sometimes mistake a person for their social mask o Method of adaptability to fit in if ___ then the problem would improve… o Situation-dependent  “Not being yourself” – holding back by changing to gainFreud acceptance  Statement Responses: 1 strong disagree, 5 strongly agree o Is there such a thing as the true you? o Most ppl in middle btwn 15-45 pts o Some psychologists say situation predominately  interested in freudian theories and slips determines personality but personality psychs  Before Freud, ppl didn’t want to understand deeply disagree  F’s theories strongly influenced by his era and family  How do you see the “real them”? structure o Observation : day to day life, questionnaires, when they don’t think they’re watching, in weak situationCultural Context: 1880s (unconstrained)  Separation of sexes: o Problems: o Male dominated, male virtues extolled  Many ppl inaccurate about personality in both  Ambition, aggressiveness, toughness positive and negative components  Dominion of wife/children unquestioned, brought  May say who we want to be vs who we are – bias up authoritarian in self-understanding o Women  no political + education rights, rich don’t work Personality:   more free time, enough money to participate in F’s experiments  a distinct pattern of feelings + thoughts + bhvrs that characterize a person’s adjustment to the demands of life” o Delinquent youth sternly punished, corporal  stable ways we are w ourselves + others punishment indispensible  not sensory qualities, physical characteristics, appearance o Inter-generation conflict more than today (ex. tired, hungry) o Authoritarianism and hierarchy outside family as well o tall ppl can have dif personalities, can even be based Sexual repression: on height o Lack of contraception – couldn’t cheat w/o possibility of pregnancy, fear of venereal diseases (particularly Over 50 definitions of personality syphilis)  each based on the theorist’s opinion, perception of self and world around them Family:  different theories of what a human being is  Mother o 21 when F born, attractive, F = fav son, warm  “cave hominem unius libri” beware the man of one book relationship (reductionism)  Theories depend on generation  Father  Reductionism (reducing the human to one component) vs o Twice age of mother, cold relationship, feared and Pluralism – problematic disrespected Starting out:  Worked 10 yrs in Neurological studies  Often two distinct groups: o Abandoned to get married o Academic Psychology (academic settings, scientific method to uncover general principles, want to  Cocaine research – published paper in 1884 categorize ppl vs help them, use research participants, o claimed cocaine = stimulant, aphrodisiac, helped research based around averages so more descriptive stomach disorders, asthma, removal of painful categorization symptoms of morphine withdrawal o Clinical Practice (clinical/psychotherapeutic settings, o “Wonder drug” research primarily though case histories)  Gave to friends (morphine-addicts)  became cocaine-addicts, used it himself,  Wanted theories to encompass everything  Scientific Statements – forming testable hypotheses o Need verifiability, predictive power, compatibility, simplicity, usefulness) 2 experiences led to neuropathology:  Philosophical Statements – making 1. 6mth travel grant w Vincent Charcot (world-famous assumptions/inferences about human nature neurologist) o Mental institution Selpetier, famous for hysteria- 1894 – F introduces concept of DEFENSE (abwehr) treatment  Forgetting painful memories and ideas o  enthused on C’s hysteria + hypnotism theories o Often occurs in abused children o Neuroses/Hysteria: various forms of mental illness,  Mind too underdeveloped to no organic cause found comprehend/understand that your caregiver is  sometimes cured by psy and social influences also your abuser o Hypnotism: trance stare where action partially o More likely to forget if younger under control of another o  idea of unconscious (Nowadays, ex. Heart  Not all easily hypnotized beating)  Often suggestion made it look real  place where all unpleasant things r stored o Trauma itself isn’t pathogenic, but its 2. Story of Joseph Breuer patient “Anna O” representation is (how you deal with it) o Saw case at start of psychoanalysis o Defense is directed against sexual ideas at the basis o Numerous hysterical symptoms disappeared one by  B disagreed one as Breuer was able to make her evoke the o Common feature in neurosis specific circumstances that led to their appearance  By catharsis – release of emotion 1895 B and F published Studies in Hysteria   Notice great benefit  Hypnosis  Supported by modern research  “Free Association” o Cared for her father, manifested signs of physical o Suggested to B by the patient herself weakness – paralysis, ocular disturbance, linguistic o In a trusting environment, lets the mind wander into disorganization (couldn’t speak in german but could the forbidden part of the mind in English), split personality (ex. Respectful  disrespectful) 1896 F sketched new classification of neuroses  Split personality: presentation of personality t Actual neurosis (source in present sexual life) world varies o Neuroasthenia (masturbation)  Many constraints of women in this class o Anxiety neurosis (frustrated sexual stimulation,  expected to play piano, sew, vegetate while particularly coitus interruptis  stops pregnancy by husband works, be nice pulling out)   suppressed characteristics are expressed  Psychoneuroses (source in past sexual life) in the other personality o Hysteria (sexual abuse by an adult, passively  these things feel so inappropriate you suffered in childhood) – more by women pretend they’re not yours even tho the o Obsessions (sexual abuse by adult, more active role, voice in your head in yours pleasure, and therefore self-reproach) – more by  More constrained situation  More we feel males since more active role in society like the voices in our head aren’t our own o Actually: 1 in 5 girls are abused o Spoke nothing but English and told B hallucinations o The women in Freud’s studies were rich enough to o Slow recovery, “talking cure” participate  Tells origins of symptoms in exact reverse order F called it great accomplishment/discovery in neuro-  they disappear pathology Ex. Tried to hold back tears (so eyes  blurry)  caused the ocular disturbance By 1897 he retracted part of the theory (the abuse)  Emotional dis-regulating since didn’t want to  Argued stories of early seduction told by his hysterical express emotion in front of father patients were fantasies/wishes, not memories due to: o B hypothesized a therapeutic effect of cathartic o Lack of therapeutic success expression of emotion that was previously o Impossibility of distinguishing the unconscious of unprocessed memory from fiction o Actually Bertha Pappenheim o The improbability that so much abuse goes  Refined education, no neuroses in youth, moved unnoticed by adults to Frankfurt w mother after father’s death  F’s perspective:  Later: Concerned w social work in late 1880s, o Middle aged director of Jewish orphanage in Frankfurt for 11 o Dealing w daughters of his respectable colleagues yrs, travelled in Balkan countries, near east, o Didn’t want to think his colleagues could be abusers Russia to inquire prostitution and slavery, 1904 o Told the stories to whoever paid (the fathers) founded league of Jewish women, 1907 founded o Didn’t want to expose the abusers that were paying teaching institution affiliated w the 1904, his bills (didn’t want to communicate the unpleasant numerous writings truth) o Thought other colleagues wouldn’t understand  Decision maybe not made consciously o Twisted his mind in a defensive direction  Pleasure principle: need to be satisfied, wants  Suddenly has theory of Oedipus complex: o Employed by Id o attraction of child to opposite gender parent  Reality principle: ego continually negotiates btwn id and o F was sexually attracted to his mother superego o  somewhat satisfied + less guilt 1896 –death of father o helps get what you want w/o being locked up  Falls into crisis (heart problems, depression, neuroses) o Superego’s guilt can be as powerful as Id’s want o  Starts self-analysis o Memories revolved around family romance, libido Ego’s defense mechanisms: towards mother around age 2½, jealousy towards  Repression – pushing threatening material out of father consciousness unconsciously and making sure it never o Interpreted dreams to later be in Interpretation of becomes conscious again Dreams o Lie if you don’t like it, especially to yourself  Assumed HIS feelings were a GENERAL phenomena o Severe in cased of violent trauma (post traumatic o  Incorporated them into his theory of personality stress disorder)  These days ppl don’t relate as much (no longer  Ego censor overwhelmed very young mother that relates more to you than o Repress inappropriate + unbearable memories, the old father) impermissible desires o Blind to the lim
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