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psy240 lec2.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Fortune

Jan 20, 2012 Demonstrate reliability and validity Validity  Test actually measuring what it measures Types of validity  Face validity-appears to measure what it should measure o Is it doesn’t make sense to ask the questions it doesn’t have high face validity o Eg, showing up at a professional interview & being asked sexual  Content validity-assesses all important aspects of phenomenon o Captures all aspects/dimensions o Eg. Intelligence tests include memory components, comprehension, spatial etc, ppl have criticized that creativity isn’t included on most intelligence tests, therefore lower content validity  Concurrent validity-test yields the same results as other similar measures  Predictive validity-test predicts behaviour it is supposed to measure o Most important validity test o Eg. Testing for intelligence in children, predicting giftedness o GRE less than one percent predictability for success for someone in grad school  Construct validity-test measures what it is supposed to measure o Different from content-may have all dimensions but not actually measuring the thing the test is supposed to measure 3 value of assessment: standardization  Application of certain standards to ensure consistency across diff measurements Clinical interview  1 thing, clinician focus on person’s presenting problems  Certain stressors  Document between life stress and onset of problem  Major source of stress: interpersonal relationships  Relationships also represent an important source of support  Family background, how does the family function, role within the family? o Eg. Troublemaker, gifted, golden child  Culture, diff prevalence rates of diff disorders depending on culture  Expression of disorder vary across cultures as well o Eg. Social disorder-Americas: fear of making a fool on oneself, Japan: fear of bringing shame to family  Context vary across cultures as well o Kora: fear of genitals retracting, only in asia Mental status exam 15, 20 min interview Highly structured  Consider 5 or 6 dimensions and scoring on them  1, the state in which the patient arrived o Eg. Disleveled, dirty? Gives clue on what the disorder may be o Facial expressions o Body language  2, thought processes, process of how someone express themselves as well as content o Rate of speech o Content  3, mood and affect o Mood: Predominant feeling state experience over time o Affect: feeling at specific moment in time o Assessing for appropriateness of mood and affect. Eg. Laughing while talking about mother’s funeral: inappropriate o Blunted: expressionless-blunted affect  4, intellectual functioning o Verbal abilities most important predictability of iq o Manipulation of language o Memory  5, awareness of where they are, sensorian o Date, time and place Clinician hypothesis what the disorder may be Another form of assessment: behavioural assessment  Behaviour in naturalistic life o Eg. Hoarding  Assessing difficulties in situational contexts The ABCs of observation  Antecedents o Where, where and with whom does the disorder usually show up? o Eg. Dilusions activated by: large crowds? Traffic?  Behaviour o What does person do after antecedent o Eg. When depressed what behaviour does person engage in? Sleeping, withdrawing from surroundings etc  Consequences o Emotional consequences? However, most clinicians don’t go to patients’ naturalistic environments. Usually patient report their own ABCs of observation to clinician Psychological Assessment Projective testing: based on the theory that people are not aware of most of their feelings-subconscious feeling Therefore: giving someone a vague image, feelings and thoughts will be projected out onto the image unconsciously Rorschach Inkblot Test  Used in visual perception research before being used for research of subconscious thoughts and feelings  45 min to administer  2 hours to
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