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CHapter 17.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Hywel Morgan

Psychological assessment refers to the systematic gathering and evaluation of information pertaining to an individual for whom a specific question about psychological functioning needs answering. Assessment requires the clinician to place and interpret scores and other data within the context of the person’s history, referral information, behavioral observations and life story of that person in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of that individual. Assessment can be carried out with a wide variety of techniques, typically including a clinical interview and a number of psychological tests. • Test-retest reliability = the degree to which a test yields the same results when it is given more than once to the same person • Alternate-form reliability = the degree to which two alternate forms of a test agree (provide similar results) • Internal consistency = the degree of reliability within a test • Split-half reliability = a measure of internal consistency; often evaluated by comparing responses on odd- and even-numbered test items • Coefficient alpha = a measure of internal consistency; calculated by averaging the intercorrelations of all the items on a given test • Face validity means that the items on a test resemble the characteristics associated with the concept being tested. • Content validity is one step beyond face validity in requiring that the test's content include a representative sample of behaviours thought to be related to the construct the test is designed to measure • Criterion validity is said to have been achieved when the test results match what is known in the population (i.e., a depression test has criterion validity if it discriminates between depressed and non-depressed people) • Construct validity is concerned with the importance of a test within a specific theoretical framework; especially useful for abstract constructs Rorschach Inkblot Test: created by Rorschach; asked to describe what they see in the blot; Exner system developed to increase reliability and validity by standardizing scoring ThematicApperception Test: created by Murray and Morgan; drawings on cards of ambiguous social interactions which individuals create stories about; questions about the reliability and validity of scoring techniques THERAPIES-CH 17 Treatment 2 ways: different paradigms within. Psychopathology-faulty ways of thinking. Theoretical perspectives. Behavioural-way of looking how mind works. Etc. main approaches they lead to different types of therapy. Theoretical approach: • Psychological therapies- • Somatic/biological therapies-problem in biological make up, imbalance of distortion of some kind. Gestalt argument: im greater than the sum of my parts. People feel they have an entity inside of them, a spirit, separate from biology, a soul. Its dilemma the mind brain dilemma, not clear. We have clear gestalt examples, clear example in our environments ie/ film. What are the parts of a film, a motion picture. They are static pictures of the parts, unmoving when put together really quickly there is movement. Greater than the sum of its parts, get movement. o Shock Therapy o Psychosurgery o Psychoactive Drug Therapy These therapies are used together, psychological-what you think and biological-make up. Both influence each other. What you think can affect your health, biology. Ex/ stress and anxiety can create ulcers. Distinct relationship between the two. Can do experiments on this not just correlational studies. Ulcers are actually bacterial infections but stress to which reduces immune system allowing to eat your stomach. Treatment was stress reduction, still is and anti biotic to reduce ulcers. They both interact for the development of psychopathology and the treatment. Psychological therapies Planned, ongoing interaction between a therapist and a client. Doesn’t have to be single client. • Psychoanalytical psychotherapies-dysfunction. Psychodynamic therapy. Method of this treatment was psychic conflict that originates from childhood. Freud said would not get to next stage. Free association is the tool.- lie and say whatever comes to mind because subconscious things arises-Freudian slips. Criticism: not easy to scientifically identify this. The Freudian slip is from subconscious or twist of the tongue-impossible to determine. • Cognitive therapies- apply learning theories to covert cognitive events. Psychoanalysis- address in mind. Behaviour-address movement. Cognitive appreciates thinking about what your doing. Cognitive behavioural therapies CBT- think about what your doing. Its psychological challenge whereas behavioural there is none just manipulating t
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