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Lecture

Substance Use Disorders

13 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
S.Cassin

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Description
1PSY 240Lecture 9Substance Use DisordersSlide 1 IntroductionSlides 23 Learning Objectives1Discuss the diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders2Distinguish between the different types of substances eg depressants stimulants3Discuss specific substances their effects and the disorders associated with them4Discuss biological theories of substance use disorders5Discuss psychological and sociocultural theories of substance use disorders6Discuss biological treatments for substance use disorders7Describe the Alcoholics Anonymous approach to treatment8Discuss psychological treatments for substance use disordersSlide 4 CartoonWe live in a culture of socially sanctioned addictionsCanada is a drug cultureWe wake up to coffee or teaWe drink more coffee or colas to say alert throughout the dayWe drink alcohol to relax and become more socialWe take aspirin to reduce painMany substances come from plants and have been used for medicinal spiritual and endurance purposes for centuriesOpium is produced from the poppy plant and has been used for hundreds of years to relieve painNatives in the Andes chewed coca leaves to increase their enduranceCoca leaves can be manufactured into cocaineCocaine was used throughout Europe and America at the turn of the century to relieve fatigue and was used in the original cocacola drinkAztecs and other native groups in the US and Canada chewed Peyote cactus to experience visual hallucinationsThere are wide cultural variations in attitudes toward substance use patterns of substance use accessibility of substances physiological reactions to substances and prevalence of substancerelated disordersSome groups forbid the use of any drugs whereas others accept or even encourage drug useThe evaluation of an individuals pattern of substance use must take these factors into account2Slide 5 DSMIV DisordersPrior to 1980 and the introduction of DSMIII the discussion of alcoholism and drug abuse were considered part of sociopathic personality disturbancesThere are four substancerelated conditions recognized by the DSMIVSubstance intoxicationSubstance abuseSubstance dependenceSubstance withdrawalSlide 6 Substance IntoxicationDevelopment of reversible symptoms and maladaptive behavioural or psychological changes due to the direct physiological effects of a substance on the CNSFor example Perceptioneg LSDWakefulnesseg Sedative Attentioneg MarijuanaThinkingeg MarijuanaJudgmenteg AlcoholMood labilityeg CocainePsychomotor behavioureg Amphetamine Interpersonal behaviour eg belligerenceeg Alcohol The diagnosis of substance intoxication is only given when the behavioural andpsychological changes cause significant disruption in the persons social and family relationships occupational or financial problems or place the person at risk for adverse effects eg accidents medical ailments legal problemsSlide 7 Substance Intoxication CartoonSlide 8 Factors Affecting IntoxicationFactors affecting intoxicationType of substanceroute of administrationDosageHistory of useTolerancerelated to body size gender history of use drug metabolismExpectations of useeg people who expect marijuana to make them relaxed may experience relaxation whereas people who are afraid of becoming disinhibited may experience anxietyEnvironment or setting in which substance is ingestedeg a few drinks at a party leads to greater gregariousness whereas a few drinks at home lead to tiredness or sadness or a few regretted phone calls or emails
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