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Lecture 2

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Lecture 2 Assessment and Diagnosis DIAGNOSIS OF ABNORMALITYAdvantages of ClassificationUsed for statistical purposesMust first define a disturbance before understanding the etiologyHelps determine appropriate treatment and assists in the prediction or prognosisAssists communication within the fieldaids in researchAssists communication with other professionals Can be a relief to clientsthey know what to expect offers an explanationDisadvantages of ClassificationClassification systems are all somewhat arbitrary Classification ignores the continuum between normality and abnormalitywhere do you draw the line between the two different stances y Categorical versus Dimensional approaches y Gives a patient a bunch of different distinct diagnoses however there could be one root cause ex girl with perfectionism can be diagnosed with 5 different disorders y Ex for depression you need to have the 5 symptoms for 2 weeks but what if you have them for 11 days Or 4 severe symptoms for 16 daysit is subjectivey Even though some symptoms overlap between disorders ex fear depressed mood each disorder is treated as a separate discrete disorder Classification systems can be misuseddisease model labellingcould lead to overdiagnosis y Labelling can affect the rest of their life ex life insurance or custody battles can affect how theyre diagnosed in other clinics how they are treated etc being sane in insane places Heterogeneity within diagnostic categoriestwo people with the same disorder can show different maybe even opposite symptoms Reliability and validity problemsneed to have consistency or agreement in diagnoses across clinicians times patients etcReliabilityValidityReliabilityconsistency or agreement in diagnosis across examiners time patients y Ex interrater different professionals rate patient interview the same way testretest same clinician at different times with the patients y Some symptoms have higher reliabilityobservable consistent ex hallucinations compulsive habitssome have lower reliability ex depression mood bipolary Factors that affect reliabilityconsistency ability to recall memoriessymptoms inconsistencies between cliniciansy To increase reliability conduct diagnoses on similar environments similar criterionobjective behavioural symptoms higher structurehigher reliability
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