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chap 10 textbook notes

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Kristie Dukewich

CH10 – PERCEIVING DEPTH & SIZE  PICTORIAL CUES – depth information that can be depicted in a two-  Distance perception of various objects in environment based on two dimensional picture –ex. in a painting or a book dimensional image on retina o OCCLUSION – signal/cue that one object is in front of another o Ex. N and F = 2 points on retina  By one object hiding/partially hidden behind another  represent points where rays of light have been reflected onto  Hidden object = far away (ex. the mountains) the retina from the tree (N) and the house (F)  Doesn’t provide information about objects’ absolute distance,  if only observing retinal name, no way determined distances for only indicates relative distance between objects points N and F in the environment o RELATIVE HEIGHT – signal/cue that objects below the horizon and  If expand to entire retinal image  increase information have bases higher in the field are usually seen as being more distant  Still 2 dimensional image but 3-dimensional perception  Ex. further motorcycle base higher than closer in picture  But both below the horizon  Objects above the horizon, lower base indicates more distance o RELATIVE SIZE – signal/cue that when two objects are equal size, one farther will take up less of field of view  This cue depends on person’s knowledge of physical size  Ex. 2 motorcycles, further = smaller o PERSPECTIVE CONVERGENCE – parallel lines extend out from observer, closer the lines = more distance  Ex. Road converge at the horizon o FAMILIAR SIZE – signal/cue that judge distance based on prior knowledge of the sizes of objects  Ex. dime, quarter, half-dollar  dime is closer than quarter  CUT APPROACH TO DEPTH PERCEPTION – information contained in two- dimensional image enables perceive depth in the scene o Identify info in retail image correlated w/ depth in the scene o Ex. House covers Tree  House greater distance (occlusion) o Connection btwn cue and depth learned through previous experience o ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE – signal/cue suggest more distant interacting w/ environment  After learning, automatic association btwn particular cues & objects appear less sharp and often have slight blue hint  b/c farther away  more air/particles hindering view depth  their presence implies 3 dimensional  but foreground remains sharp & defined  Differs depending on environment b/c diff. atmosphere Oculomotor Cue  OCULOMOTOR CUES – cues based on ability to sense the position of our  Ex. in city more particles, rural less particles eyes and the tension in our eye muscle; created by: o CONVERGENCE – the inward movement of the eyes that occurs when looking at nearby objects o ACCOMMODATION – the change in the shape of the lens that occurs when we focus on objects at various distances  Ex. the feeling of moving finger closer towards eyes, caused by o 1. Changing the convergence angle as the eyes look inwards o 2. Change shape of the lens as eye accommodates to focus near o Opposite effect when moving finger away o TEXTURE GRADIENT – elements equally spaced in a scene appear closely packed as distance increases  According to cue of Relative Size: more distant objects take up less field of view  exactly what happens o faraway elements in Monocular Cue texture gradient  MONOCULAR CUES – cues that work with one eye; includes o SHADOWS – shadow associated w/ objects gives information of o Accommodation, pictorial cues, motion-produced cues object’s locations  Makes clear object’s location relative to the ground  Also enhances three-dimensionality of objects  Circles + Shadows = appear spherical  MOTION-PRODUCED CUES – depth information created by movement o CORRESPONDING RETINAL POINTS – the places on each retina that o MOTION PARALLAX – signal/cue of different objects’ would overlap if one retina could be slid on top of the other position/distance based on its apparent speeds relative to the  These are the corresponding points on left and right retina motion of the observer  nearby objects appear to rapidly past while further objects appear move more slowly  ex. side window of a moving car, mountain move o HOROPTER – imaginary surface that passes through the point of slower than fixation and indicates all possible locations of objects that would fall adjacent roadside on corresponding points on the two retina objects  in shape of a semicircle with point of affixation as center  b/c nearby objects take o ANGEL OF DISPARITY – The difference between where an image falls shorter time for time to on the right eyes and the corresponding point for where the image move across the retina falls on the left eye vs. further away objects  ABSOLUTE DISPARITY (absolute angle of disparity) – the amount of absolute disparity indicates how far an object is from the horopter  greater absolute disparity = more distance from horopter  absolute disparity changes if observer changes position  person makes up to 3 fixation per second when scanning
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