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PSY 280 L10.03

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University of Toronto St. George
Matthias Niemeier

PSY 280 – P ERCEPTION M. N EIMEIER 10/03/12 M USIC ANDSPEECH PERCEPTION Q. Explain the temporal code of sound frequency. What is coded? How is it coded (what’s the proper scientific term for it)? What are the limits of temporal coding? How could this limitation be overcome? Complex sounds (cont’d from last lecture) - Attack and decay of sound o Attack: part of a sound during which amplitude increases (onset) o Decay: Part of a sound during which amplitude decreases (offset) Auditory Scene Analysis - What happens in natural situations? o Acoustic environment can be a busy place o Multiple sound sources - How does auditory system sort out these sources? o Source segregation, or auditory scene analysis - A number of strategies to segregate sound sources: o Spatial separation between sounds; motion parallax o Separation on basis of sounds’ spectral or temporal qualities o Auditory stream segregation: perception organization of a complex acoustic signal into separate auditory events for which each stream is heard as a separate event - Gestalt law – “similarity” o German for “form” o In perception, a term introduced by a school of thought stressing that the perceptual while could be greater than the sum of its parts - Grouping by timbre o Tones that have increasing and decreasing frequencies, or tones that deviate from rising/falling pattern “pop out” of sequence - Grouping by onset o Harmonics of speech sound or music o Grouping different harmonics into a single complex tone o Rasch (1987) showed that it is much easier to distinguish two notes from one another when onset of one precedes onset of other by very short time o Gestalt law of common fate o Does the bottle break? - Spectrogram: a pattern for sound analysis that provides a 3D display of intensity as a function of time and frequency o E.g., bouncing vs. breaking bottle - Multisensory integration: vision (usually) helps audition - Ventriloquist effect: an audio-visual illusion in which sound is misperceived as emanating from a source that can be seen to be moving appropriately when it actually emanates from a different invisible source o Visual dominance for location Continuity and Restoration Effects - How do we know that listeners really hear a sound as continuous? o Principle fo good continuation: in spite of itnerruptions, one can still “hear” sound o Experiments that use signal detection task 9e.g., Kluender and Jenison) suggest that at some point restored missing sounds are encoded in brain as if they were actually present! - Restoration of complex sound (e.g., music, speech) o “Higher-order” sources of information, not just auditory information  “The *eel fell off the car” (wheel)  “… the table” (meal) Restoration Effect - Noise helps comprehension o Easier for people to reconstruct missing speech components when people understand there to be interference o Silence often confuses listeners Music - Music is a way to express thoughts and emotions o Pythagoras: numbers and music intervals o Some clinical psychologists practice music therapy - Musical notes o Sounds of music extend across a frequency range from about 25 to 4500 Hz o Pitch: the psychological aspect of sounds related mainly to the fundamental frequency - Octave: the interval between 2 sound frequencies having a ratio of 2:1 o Example: middle C (C ) 4has a fundamental frequency of 261.6 Hz; notes that are one octave from middle C are 130.8 Hz (C ) a3d 523.2 Hz (C ) 5 o C 3130.8 Hz) sounds more similar to C (264.6 Hz) than to E (164.3 Hz) o There is more to musical pitch than just frequency! - Musical pitch has 2 dimensions o Tone height: a sound quality corresponding to the level of pitch. Tone height is monotonically related to frequency o Tone chroma: a sound quality shared by tones that have the same octave interval  Each note on the musical scale (A-G) has a different chroma o Musical helix – can help to visualize musical pitch - Musical instruments: produce notes below 4 kHz - Listeners: great difficulty perceiving octave relationships between tones when one or both tones are greater than 5 kHz  temporal frequency coding? - Chords: created when two or more notes are played simultaneously - Consonant: have simple ratios of note frequencies (3:2, 4:3) - Dissonant: less elegant ratios of note frequencies (16:15, 45:32) - Cultural differences o Some relationships between notes, such as octaves, are universal o Research on music perception – Western vs. Javanese  Javanese culture – fewer notes within an octave; greater variation in note’s acceptable frequencies  Musicians’ estimates of intervals between notes correspond to the music scale from their culture  Infants detect inappropriate notes within both scales - Melody: an arrangement of notes or chords in succession (chroma & rhythm) forming a gestalt o E.g., “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star” or “Baa Baa Black Sheep” o Defined by relationship between successive notes, not specific sounds  Melodies can change octaves or keys and still be the same melody o Notes and chords vary in duration o Tempo: the perceived speed of the presentation of sounds - Melodies / themes as building blocks of music - Fugue: a compositional technique (in classical music) in two or more voices, built on a subject (
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