LECTURE 9: Parenting and Socialization
Socialization: -The transmission of standards of any given society from one generation to the
next. Emotion regulation-appropriate to display emotions, okay for guys to cry when watch a
movie, emotional reactions, cultural components: customs, traditions, foods. Transmitted from
generation to generation (op down process), elders pass onto younger ones so they can
accommodate, assimilate and take that on to pass down. Doesn't work like this today-
horizontally, from peers to peers. Immigrants children learn about canada from their peers.
Younger kids teach elders about modern values, tolerance of racial difference, homosexuality,
-Tradition theoretical/philosophical approaches as to why and how this takes place:
1. The child is born complete and needs to be left alone to develop (child is active):
will be exposed to language, do own niche picking, role of socialization is minor will pick
it up anyway, doesn't have to be purposeful for parents because child is active.
2. The child is born a blank slate and everything needs to be taught ( child is
passive) - behavioural aspect, watson's approach. All children born the same, empty born
bells. Parenting, schooling and education is important because it determines the child.
Evidence about good neighborhood vs bad school, parent involvement in school. Little
evidence that child is passive but large evidence that parenting is critical to benefit child
3. The child is born bad and needs to be corrected resulting in constant conflict in
the process. Don’t really see this but has been influential for child development, education,
and make parents feel harsh discipline that the parents take for child to control their
impulses. Frontal lobes important for impulse control and don’t develop until adolescence.
4. Mutual adaptation between parent and child, where both play an active part. Fits
in the way that parents play an important role in socialization ie. If musicians then child
will play piano, if parent is a skater, then child will skate as soon as they can walk.
Children don't always follow parents goals so will go pursue their own interests through
niche picking, and peers. Mutual adaption goes through both direction, biological
maturation where child gradually grown, perception and cognition gradually develops.
Legal Implications of Parental Responsibility to Socialize article
What happens when socialize fails, child becomes a criminal, what are the responsibilities of
• Parental responsibility to socialize their children is elusive and ill defined.
• Parent's responsibilities are rooted in society's interest in the healthy socialization of
children as citizens and workers. How is country going to survive and thrive if next
generation isn't responsible.
• Most parents never come into contact with the law about such issues, ut socialization
''failures' can become a legal problem.
What are Parental Legal Duties?
• parents and school system usually agree about values. Children have to go to
school from 4 to 5 until finish grade 10. public education is rooted in society taking
responsibility to socialize children so by grade 10, all kids have common values. If
not doing this then countering society's requirement. • Home Schooling: exposed to violence, poor communication. Counter to our core
values. High school has higher quality drugs.
• Children with disabilities- have the right to go to school.
• Discipline: use force up to age 12 that doesn't count as physical abuse. Parents are able to
use their discretion as long as in privacy and not abuse. Emotional abuse is difficult to
prove could be depressed for many reasons.
• Legal system may get involved if parents:
• Cannot control their children's public behaviour ie/child steals from store
and parent doesn't do anything about it, so committing a crime and parent not
able to control in public. Ie. Temper tantrum in public in a theatre, disney
movie, and not calming child down throwing popcorn everywhere.At the end of
the day, society needs to be inorder, either mental problem or developmental
delay we want to have a control orderly society, everyone has rights and these
rights have to be acknowledged.
• Cannot control their own behaviour in the course of disciplining their
children while in public. Doing type of things that society deems to be
inappropriate. 12 year old who steals from store, and spanking in public is
considered inappropriate and police will be involved.
• Legal system may get involved when children misbehave even if this does not
constitute an actual crime. Ie. Parents want child to be home on time but child never
shows up. Arrangement with the police and police will escort child back and sit in
front for ten minutes.
• Parents are sometimes, the complainants in such cases.
• In some states courts can hold parents responsible for failing to socialize their
• Parent fails to comply with a court order to assume particular parental
responsibilities. Can't do much if child runs away but other things, supervise,
feed, and clothe child.
• The parent contributes to the delinquency of a minor ie/child trafficking
with drugs, and parents involved.
• Legal liability for damages caused by their children. because parents failed
to prevent child from misbehaving.
• New laws in some jurisdictions- parents are directly responsible for their
children's delinquent offenses. If child caught stealing, then parent must pay.
Parents however are not told what they should do to appropriately socialize their
• In many cases, despite 'good' parenting, children, due to socialization from
sources outside of the family, become juvenile delinquents. Socialization is horizontal
so peer gets driver licence and break the rule on a car ride.Are parents involved?
• Reciprocal influence between parents and children.A child who is demanding will have
involved parents or with harsh discipline. Child is active and has own temperament so not
one way path. The degree and how parenting influences a child is not clear.
• Origin of parental behaviour: • Universal attributes-affect: parents are in general going to love child, and do what
every they need to prepare them for life. Universal emotions and consistent with other
species, key role of parenting is to guide offspring to be independent through care,
setting expectations, etc.
• Culture-specific attributes: discipline- when is it applied, how harshly, routines
and rituals-how many, how strict our expectations child participates, cultural
differences when parents provide clear restrictions to child ie/western-parents are
more restrictive when child is young and lift child when older because they learn
more, take more responsibility for themselves. Other cultures- when young doesn’t
have the capability to do anything so no restrictions as when older have the potential
to make major wrong mistakes so will apply restrictions at that point.
• Individual attributes: differences between parenting within cultures. Ie/social
class-some have more to give child financially, personality and character-some
parents bring different personality, parenting styles-some are more strict and harsh
than others. If parents are athletic or academic then will want child to take on those
• Parental belief systems: what parents think about parenting is just as important as what
they actually do as parents. Ie/adulthood is tough, so prepare as a child the skills they need
so they can cope with life when they become adults. Or adulthood is easy, need to ensure
child makes right decision in adolescence. Some moms will carry first child constantly
until second child is born because adulthood is easy. If adullthood is hard will leave child in
the room to control crying on their own because must learn soon. Tough love- may be able
to cope very well but feeling neglected about the love they needed.
• Variation in parental behavior within culture
Important to remember that child's temperament and context of development will have a
strong influence on parenting styles. Large urban cities determine parenting behaviours
ie/in the city parents don't let children use public transit because lower class use buses and
strange people use public transit.
• Two important dimensions are: looked at them as dichomities not as a continuum. They
have to be measurable, ie/permissiveness not love cant measure love
• Permisssiveness/restrictiveness: are they allowed to walk on their own to school,
are they allowed to pick their own clothing, have friends over. Measurable, not a
hypothetical construct, do parents say yes/no, what degree do they give child to make
• Warmth/hostility-measurable, physical affection ie/ cuddling, speaking kindly
with soft voice, children could still be demanding and parents be restrictive but doing
it by being hostile. Hostile- not physical affection, yells a lot.
Result in the following parenting styles:
Warmth Democratic Overprotective
Hostility Neglecting Authoritarian
Have one attribute or the other not in the middle. Authoritarian: not do anything, always say no, because both restrictiveness, hostile. Ie/no
you can't go out because something bad will happen to you, don't know how to cope"
Overprotective- problematic, rarely let child leave house, always there with the child, long
term effects: give child the idea that world is scary place and discourage the child from
exploring, create school phobias, show up during recess to make sure nothing happens.
Neglecting: child asks to go out, parent will say " I don’t care, don’t bother me". They are
not stepping up to their responsibility. Done in a hostile way, not warmth
Democratic: let child do what they want, with warmth. 12 year old will be allowed to leave
house at night and will be nice about it. Very caring, here's money for the bus
Two Dimensional Framework:
Cold: hostile. Not dichotomous but continuum so can be somewhere in the middle. Four
categories seen as continuum so infinite combinations can be average in both of them. Not really
warm or cold. Plotting on chart.
Baurmrind's Parenting Styles
-Authoritarian: high expectations, little support. Rebellious child, have to defend them to
themselves but achieved a lot otherwise punishment from parents or become dependent and
social incompetent.. Parents not supportive. Ie/disability child- will be brought up thinking as a
failure, grows up to be social incompetent, low self-esteem, low self-confidence,
-Permissive-low expectations, lots of support. Parent satisfied as long as child tries, emotional
focus, children are different from each other and excel in different ways. Lots of support, low
expectations. Little direction, few goals, spend half of their life looking for what they want to do,
not assertive, low achievement motivation.
-Authoritative: high expectations, lots of support. You need top grades, we can get a tutor I can
talk to teacher. Will achieve success at the end. Parents were busy but they cared. High self
esteem, high success lots of support. Is associated with most well adjusted kids, not causal. Ie/kid
goes to school, gets a job, lives up to societies standards, gets married, gets mortgage.
-Rejecting/Neglecting- low expectations, little support. Its kid's life, if you want to fail its up to
you whatever you want to do with your life, don't bother me. Families like this parents may have
low income, difficult upbringings, abuse in family, difficult children, live in bad neighbourhoods
with crime, parents fed up. Child grows up in this environment wont grow upto a lot of successes
because low expectations, family with no support-not a lot of opportunities to develop high self
esteem, cognitively immature, hard time getting through life.
Shortcomings of Parenting Style Research
• Other factors such as SES may cause both parenting style and outcome for child.
• Parenting styles do not capture the important theme of reciprocal socialization.
Ie/immigrant children socialize their parents
• Many parents use a combination of techniques-while consistent parenting is important,
parents must be sensitive and respond by altering their parenting techniques according to
their child's needs. If one child is a nerd the other popular withADHD will parent different.
Doesn’t parent the same way, equivalently in terms of love, dedication and rights.
Parenting and Public Policy: • The quality and character of parenting results in part from the social context in which
• One important feature of this social context is public policy. Public policy operates on
parent like by determining how many taxes they