Ray figure-test. More efficient to process larger shapes not peripheral images. Visospational info
processing. Ackrison and shiffren model. Most widely used way of learning from a psychologist
Amodular theory-useful for development of artificial intelligence. Used for the design of
computers. Bottom up processing.
Incoming information- sensory information (first part of module)-5 arrows for 5 senses,
registering all five at the same time.
1. Vision mostly used, and relied on heavily. Rods and cones detect electromagnetic
radiation. Different wavelengths of colour.
2. Second most important, hearing-auditory visual. Detecting vibration molecules in
the air. Different wavelengths of frequency, amplitude.
3. Touch-somato sensation-detect pressure otherwise filter and heat. Filtering out
information due to attention. Somatosensory information-pressure, heat and pain and
vibration. Receptors in the skin to detect all four kinds of somatosensory sensations have
separate receptors, being filtered out.
4. Gustotary- sense of taste. Help to adapt to environment. Receptors in mouth that
gives us sense of taste -sweet, salt. Need for survival and adaptive. Not desirable sour,
bitter, implies poison. Tongue and mouth detect chemicals
5. Olfaction- sense of smell. Detecting chemicals in the air. Receptors in the nose
Information process module: filter out. Theory comes in modules which is evidence to suggest
this module is correct.All five sensory inputs are being registered at the same time.
-part of the brain registering these senses. Research showing all have perfect photographic
memory-iconic memory-a register for all senses coming in. a lot of it being filtered out. Material
being filtered out is lost-decay.
Things to filter in-meaningful things
-spirling study- flashed letter for 15 ms.Able to recall 4 letters. Were able to process all 12
letters. Clever experiment-assign three tones to each row of letters (3 lines). First row-high tone,
last row-low tone came with the presentation of the letter presented in half a second within the
15 ms. Person can remember letters based on the tone so still processing in the sensory register.
The decay part occurs within half a second. Perfect photographic memory for half a second and
then filtered out.
Pattern recognition- language-filtering it in to process further. People unable to filter out other
things is a disorder, attention deficit disorder.
This theory says stuff we recognize goes to the next module:
Working memory: filtering things in to pay attention to.Attention (top down) conscious, rest is
decayed. Short term memory not used. Example of Working memory using verbal/ repeat
numbers as length increases, registering them, filtering out, bringing info into working memory,
specifically short term memory. Capacity limit for short term memory about 5 to 7 items
(chucks)-length of a telephone number. Working memory draw info into consciousness and a
similar task, recall in the backwards order-working memory. Bring it into conciousness because
we recognize and want to pay attention because it is important. If not important then decays. If
given phone number will remember for 15 seconds unless rehearse or elaborations (create a
meaning). Guscraig-elaboration theory model.After rehearsal goes into long term memory
through encoding (bottom up.) top down will be retrieve. LTM is relevantly permanent store. Information no longer retrievable is forgetting.
Acknowledgement that might not be decay but misplaced the memory, misfiled so not easily
retrieved but it is there. Once a memory in LTM, it is there forever, retrievable under the right
Sophisticated model because doing B-U and T-D at the same time. Ie/language in LTM. Have to
be detecting sensory information and compare it to LTM.
Model of information processing
Attention: Cocktail party. Attention and pattern recognition at the same time. Encode-LTM,
forgetting maybe decay from LTM.
Central executive- frontal cortex-conscious part of the mind, Coordinates incoming info with
info in the system. Controls attention. Selects, applies, and monitors the eeffectivesness of
LTM-in cortex. WM- function of hippocampus. Sensory register function of midbrain and cortex.
-infancy upto 2, toddler upto 5, child-5 to 12, adolescence-teens, adult
Information-Processing Improvements: Infancy
• Attention- function of frontal lobe. Efficiency, ability to shift focus improves. Less
attraction to novelty, better sustained attention after first year. Rapid development of
• Memory-retention intervals lengthen. Recall appears by end of first year; excellent in
• Categorization- as piaget showed, impressive perceptual categorization in first year.
Conceptual categorization in second year.
Development of sensory, working and LTM. Sight in infanc