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Lecture 2

LECTURE 2.docx

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Hywel Morgan

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LECTURE 2 Ray figure-test. More efficient to process larger shapes not peripheral images. Visospational info processing. Ackrison and shiffren model. Most widely used way of learning from a psychologist POV. Amodular theory-useful for development of artificial intelligence. Used for the design of computers. Bottom up processing. Incoming information- sensory information (first part of module)-5 arrows for 5 senses, registering all five at the same time. 1. Vision mostly used, and relied on heavily. Rods and cones detect electromagnetic radiation. Different wavelengths of colour. 2. Second most important, hearing-auditory visual. Detecting vibration molecules in the air. Different wavelengths of frequency, amplitude. 3. Touch-somato sensation-detect pressure otherwise filter and heat. Filtering out information due to attention. Somatosensory information-pressure, heat and pain and vibration. Receptors in the skin to detect all four kinds of somatosensory sensations have separate receptors, being filtered out. 4. Gustotary- sense of taste. Help to adapt to environment. Receptors in mouth that gives us sense of taste -sweet, salt. Need for survival and adaptive. Not desirable sour, bitter, implies poison. Tongue and mouth detect chemicals 5. Olfaction- sense of smell. Detecting chemicals in the air. Receptors in the nose Information process module: filter out. Theory comes in modules which is evidence to suggest this module is correct.All five sensory inputs are being registered at the same time. -part of the brain registering these senses. Research showing all have perfect photographic memory-iconic memory-a register for all senses coming in. a lot of it being filtered out. Material being filtered out is lost-decay. Things to filter in-meaningful things -spirling study- flashed letter for 15 ms.Able to recall 4 letters. Were able to process all 12 letters. Clever experiment-assign three tones to each row of letters (3 lines). First row-high tone, last row-low tone came with the presentation of the letter presented in half a second within the 15 ms. Person can remember letters based on the tone so still processing in the sensory register. The decay part occurs within half a second. Perfect photographic memory for half a second and then filtered out. Pattern recognition- language-filtering it in to process further. People unable to filter out other things is a disorder, attention deficit disorder. This theory says stuff we recognize goes to the next module: Working memory: filtering things in to pay attention to.Attention (top down) conscious, rest is decayed. Short term memory not used. Example of Working memory using verbal/ repeat numbers as length increases, registering them, filtering out, bringing info into working memory, specifically short term memory. Capacity limit for short term memory about 5 to 7 items (chucks)-length of a telephone number. Working memory draw info into consciousness and a similar task, recall in the backwards order-working memory. Bring it into conciousness because we recognize and want to pay attention because it is important. If not important then decays. If given phone number will remember for 15 seconds unless rehearse or elaborations (create a meaning). Guscraig-elaboration theory model.After rehearsal goes into long term memory through encoding (bottom up.) top down will be retrieve. LTM is relevantly permanent store. Information no longer retrievable is forgetting. Acknowledgement that might not be decay but misplaced the memory, misfiled so not easily retrieved but it is there. Once a memory in LTM, it is there forever, retrievable under the right circumstances-contemporary theory. Sophisticated model because doing B-U and T-D at the same time. Ie/language in LTM. Have to be detecting sensory information and compare it to LTM. Model of information processing Attention: Cocktail party. Attention and pattern recognition at the same time. Encode-LTM, forgetting maybe decay from LTM. Central executive- frontal cortex-conscious part of the mind, Coordinates incoming info with info in the system. Controls attention. Selects, applies, and monitors the eeffectivesness of strategies. LTM-in cortex. WM- function of hippocampus. Sensory register function of midbrain and cortex. -infancy upto 2, toddler upto 5, child-5 to 12, adolescence-teens, adult Information-Processing Improvements: Infancy • Attention- function of frontal lobe. Efficiency, ability to shift focus improves. Less attraction to novelty, better sustained attention after first year. Rapid development of prefrontal functioning. • Memory-retention intervals lengthen. Recall appears by end of first year; excellent in second year • Categorization- as piaget showed, impressive perceptual categorization in first year. Conceptual categorization in second year. Development of sensory, working and LTM. Sight in infanc
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