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Lecture 2

lecture 2 - review cultural.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Simone Walker

Lecture 1  cross cultural psy - perspective  cultural psy - sub discipline in psy that uses cross cultural perspective to examine issues and concepts in psy  cultural psy is young subdiscipline bc traditionally psy looked at universals - assumption that human mind operated according to universal laws; any diff btw cultures is due to noise in the data  cross cultural research - research that looks at diff in behavior across cultures  etics - psy processes that are consistent across cultures -> universals  emics - psy processes that are diff across cultures -> culture specific  is psy process universal or culture specific? - ie; is marriage universal? o depends on level of abstraction - more abstract, more likely to be universal o depends on type of evidence  accessibility universal  concept exists across cultures; has same meaning and used to the same degree  ie: social facilitation  functional universal  concepts that exist across cultures; has the same meaning but not used to the same extent  ie: social punishment; attractiveness to similarity  existential universal  concept that exist across cultures; doesn’t have the same meaning or used to the same extent  ie; intrinsic motivation  nonuniversal  concept doent exist across cultures  ie; abacus reasoning is culture specific  goals in cultural psy o test or extend the generalizability of existing theories  test the theories to see whether the processes that were assumed to be universal ->are they actually universals?  most studies use weird samples -> not generalizable  weird samples are more likely to fall for line illusion -> similar to what see in corners of the rooms o examine other cultures to discover variations in behavior that might be diff from what is seen in one’s own culture  allows to become aware of own culture  allows to become less ethnocentric - judge others according to your own cultural standards o integrate findings in order to better understand universals o resolve intercultural conflicts - consequence rather than law  lecture 2  greenfield examined extraversion across 2 cultures -> zinat (mexico) and north americans  used surveys that were validated using north American samples  items in the samples were independent and questions were asked in slightly diff ways  zinat had diff expectations of how survey would proceed  just bc a method is valid in one culture doesn’t mean it will be valid in another  cultural psy is interested in diff subfield of psy ->will use methods associated with that subfield  ie: use surveys to measure extraversion  will inherit problems associated with particular method  ie; socially desirable responding on surveys  bc comparing across cultures -> will get new problems  ie: people’s understanding of how surveys work, conversational norms are diff -> will influence how participants respond and the type of data that will get  in cross cultural psy not only looking at cross cultural diff in terms of concepts (ie: diff in terms of average levels of self esteem) but also the relationships btw the concepts (ie: diff in terms of how self esteem influences academic achievement)  the cultures are chosen based on the variable of interest  ie want to study the relationship btw collectivism and self ->chose culture that differ in terms of collectivism  theory should guide which cultures will choose -> will be able to interpret the results if use theories, otherwise will not just the diff btw cultures but not why they exist  cultural level studies - looking at cultural diff in terms of average  independent level measure of culture - measurement of cultural values; ie triandasis - measures level of collectivism and individualism lecture 2  greenfield examined cross cultural diff in terms of diff personality traits  compared zin and north americans in terms of extraversion  used surveys that were validates using north American samples  zin had diff expectations of how surveys would proceed  surveys were not a valid (appropriate) measure of extraversion in zin  if the measurement is valid and reliable in one culture, doesn’t mean it will be valid and reliable in another culture  cross cultural psy is interested in ques from diff subdisciplines  uses methods from those diff disciplines -> ie using surveys to examine extraversion  there are problems associated with each method ->ie socially desirable responding in surveys  by virtue of comparing diff cu
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