Culture & Social Behaviour
Single culture studies- within culture agreement tend to form agressions of others in similar
Ex.American and Chinese Ss; judgements of personality traits associated with photographs of
People with older looking faces- wordly, wise, high levels within culture agreement in contrast to
When cultures see other faces- cross cultural agreement when inferring faces. Ex/American vs
Chinese: were similar to each other. In addition separate studies looked at predictive validity
whether or not people are able to predict real world implication or real world behaviours found
high levels of agreement. Can predict when candidate could win a vote based on face impression
from photos. Seen as naïve.
Predict real world outcomes whther this candidate will win a election.
Candidates being more comptent based on person perception were likely to win election.
Form perception and predictive validity separate.
Even though process of person perception is universal, culture influences this.
American and Japanese political candidates. Rated how competent each candidate would be.
Found high levels of agreement. So rating inferred regarding phtos of candidates were similar
acorss American and Japanese cultures.
Participants asked to whether or not the candidate would win an election. Data collected if they
actually did win. Found participates good at predicting which candidate would win based on
traits inferred. Ex/ more competent than others were likely to win.
Cultural difference: Japanese more predicitive of japanses candidates
Suggest process of person perception is universal, similar across cultures when inferences of
others, better at same culture and need more knowledge to make accurate statements from people
in other cultures.
Rate each face in terms of trustworthiness. Varied in smiling. Ie/eye in intense smiling
Americans- rated with mouth. Japanese rated with eyes smiling more intensely
Culture influences impressions formed of others.
Consistent with cultural display rules. Indivs engage in masking is a display rule which display
an expression on face inconsistent with inside feeling.
Cultures who mask their emotion- they tend to pay attention to eyes because more difficult to
control eyes and how they are actually feeling
Culture where do not engage in masking- will look at mouth which provides info about
Japanese- maksing emotion in different social context, looking at eyes will show trustiworthiness
American- maksing not the norm more attention to mouth to determine trustworthiness
Better at own race because more contact ie/ family members, friends, live in close proximity to
Over time high level of familiarity to faces of our own race so better at recognizing own race
then other races.
Ex/ study showed that when particpants asked to recognize faces in other and own races, must
make judgemental. Must closely examine faces because must do something with that info later.
Bias disappears, has to do with orienting strategies. Or self-schemas. Schemas- mental framework that organizes info. Schemas regarding ourself ie what we are like-
values, morals, beliefs, preferences and behaviors. Regarding past, biographical memories.
Perhaps not race but self schemas that influence how people recognize faces in own races and
Support for different cultures actually perceive and classify faces in different ways.At perceptual
level differences across cultures that lead to bias.
All support for these except intergroup contact.
Interpersonal attraction several determinants
1. Physical attractiveness- we are attractive to people we perceive to be beautiful.
Universal in terms of what is physically attractive? i) evolutionary-some similarities or ii) upto
Universal characteristic people agree on is complexion. Perceive skin free from blemishes is
Indicator of health. Maximize reproductive fitness. Better offspring likely to be healthy.
Evolutionary explanation: not indicator of health but developmental stability in ideal conditions.
Ie. In womb, early life experiences in environment free from pollution. All produce deviations
from bilateral symmetry.
Likely to have offspring from genetic mutations, survive, reproduce and pass on genes to
bilaterally symmetrical faces.
Show a face and rate attractiveness. Second face is rated. Create a composite face which is
average of two. Rate average more than other two
-we tend to be more attractive to features with average sizes and configurations.
Because average size is indicator of genetic health, abnormality. Healthy offspring.
Also be familiarity- idea of prototype face that repsents average type of all human face
configuartions. Research found closer to a prototype we are faster at processing that info
regarding that stimulus. We tend to like stimuli that are easy and quick to process. Perception
Average faces easier to process, effortlessly, tend to like average faces. Makes us feel good.
Heuristics used ex. Experts are always right, what is beautiful is good
-are kinder, intelligent, socially skilled, and competent. This is bias. Physically attractive people
are more socially skilled then less attractive because we are attracted to physically attacted
people which gives them opportunities to interact that allows them to develop their skills. We
interact with them more frequently and reward them ie/ children elicit good response to adults
increasing the likelihood that child will develop good skills.
-pervasice- earn more than less physically attractive people, likely to be hired regardless of
experience being the same.
This bias- is typically found in north American. Shown hard to replicate in non northAmerican
cultures. Differences in north American is the meaning of attractiveness
Propqunity- physical proximity. Consistent finding attracted to people we interact with.
-liked classmates who were in the same row, side by side were friends compared to students who
sat far apart.
-powerful determinant of attraction.
-recruited new people to police academy. Arrived on first day of recruiting, seating and sleeping
arrangements would be determined alphabetically. These assignments would be for the whole
duration of training. Side by side friends would be friends and greater likely to like each other.
Evidence of propinquity in chickens -accessibility universal: evidence across all cultures that we like people more if we come in
frequent contact with these people
-propinquity effect explanation: mere exposure. Easier to process stimuli and transfer that liking
to that stimli. Easier to process because exposed more. Repeated exposure, repeated contact
increases our attraction to that person.a
-other determinant: similarity is a powerful determinant. Little evidence to support that opposites
-for cads-similarity attraction effect. Were more likely to say they like stranger and interact in
future who were similar to them. In japanses no effect on similarity affect regardless of talking
about traits, behaviour, personality.
High levels of agreement of characteristics of a potential mate.
Evolutionary explanation for high level of agreement- universal set of traits. Evolutionary there
are differences in reproductive capacities due to biological differences.
Good health: physical attractiveness and youth
Male investment- low and reproductive cost.
Culture and Love
Is it universal? Triangular theory: passion, intimacy and committed. Decision to stay with a
partner in s-t or long-term and put in time and effort to make relationship last. Different
combinations leading to different types of love. Ie/infactuation-passion only, brief, empty-
commitment, burnt out marriage, no thoughts shared.
Western culture: romantic love. Is it universal? Reviewed ethnographies (rich description of
cultures). Found 89% clear evidence of romatic love. Remaining no evidence. However,
researchers interpreted these findings that romantic love doesn’t exist in 100% but
methodological flaws in ethnogrpahies that explained why no evidence was found. When use pre
existing info, no control of the quality because you didn’t collect it so flaws in data. Concluded
that romantic love is universal.
Culture difference in meaning and importance of romantic love to long term relationship.
Study: recruited sample ofAmerican French and Japanese participants.Asked questions about
current status, concern, arguments etc.
Private self mor ethan japenese. Japanses andAmerican more arguments compared to French.
Similar study: recruited americans, Japanese and germans. Found americans and germans likely
to say that romantic love is key ingredient to successful marriage, moreso then japanse. Suggest
cultural difference how highly romantic love is valued. Necessary for romantic relationship. No
strong ties to extended families or few ties, that more value is placed on romantic love. Because
having large extended family or strong ties to family allows extended family to exert influence
on your relat