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Lecture 5

PSY322 Lecture 5.docx

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Alison Chasteen

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Lecture 5: Stereotype Inhibition  Bodenhausen and Macrae model:  Facilitated factors or inhibitory factors to stereotype 1. Categorization and stereotype activation: What might lead to inhibition or facilitator in the initial processing stage? Can determine which stereotype is activated and which is inhibited. When under cognitive load then it might facilitate stereotype. Depending on priming and context, then will lead to some inhibitions of stereotype – competing stereotypes 2. Biased interpretation stage in which personal control is there and the prejudice can be seen. The initial stage is the unconscious stage of processing. Depending on whether you endorse or reject the stereotype, then you would either be motivated to apply stereotypes or attempt to suppress the stereotypes. They might not stop thinking about the stereotype, but they might attempt to suppress the stereotype. 3. Discriminatory response towards people that is affected by social norms (social control). Some norms say that it is alright to be prejudiced and some says that it is not alright. Thus you might not be comfortable with something but you might not want to say that it is inappropriate. You also might want to conceal your prejudices in an egalitarian society. Facilitator Inhibitor Categorization and Initial Cognitive load Competing stereotypes - stereotype activation Processing priming Biased Interpretation Personal Motivated reasoning – Attempted suppression – Control personal endorsement personal rejection Discriminatory Social control Compliant Concealment – normative Response endorsement – egalitarianism normative discrimination  Devine’s notion: breaking a bad habit  High and low prejudice people have implicit stereotypes  In order to break the bad habit for low prejudiced people:  Establish non-prejudiced standards based on own personal beliefs. Try to compete stereotype activation and non- prejudiced belief and eventually the latter would win, but it would take time.  Internalize standards  Learn how to inhibit stereotypic response  Try to suppress the activation of stereotype - try to have personal control  However they also want to reduced categorization at initial processing sub conscious stage  Negation Training: Just say no!  Kawakami ET. Al  Can you train people to break the bad habit of stereotype activation?  Negative training: Just say no!  Skinhead stereotype vs. elderly stereotype  Trying to train people not to stereotype skinhead and elderly  The elderly stereotype was a lot more complex and thus was not discussed  Present them with a photo of a skinhead and paired with a stereotypic (hostile) trait or a non-stereotypic (kind) trait  People were supposed to press no to the hostile trait and yes to the kind trait.  Saying no to skinheads being hostile and yes to the skinheads being kind  Did this over hundreds of trials  Stroop Effect  Name the colour of the word  They had the word skinhead category and another word which has a colour and you have the name the colour  In some trials the second word fits the stereotype of skinhead and in some other trials the second word does not fit the stereotype of skinhead  Did the stroop test twice , once before negation training and once after negation training  Predictions:  Pre-test consistent: people would be slower with identifying the stereotypic word as you are actually processing the semantics of word since it matches the stereotypes of the skinhead. The processing of the semantics of the word would interfere with the colour of the word.  Pre-test inconsistent: people would be faster to respond to non-stereotypic words as it is just a word without any semantics implications. There is no interference from a stereotypic content.  Thus slower reaction times means greater stereotype activation  Post-test: After the intervention of negation training they would process the colour of the stereotypic words faster.  Results:  They were slower to respond to the colour of the word when there is a stereotypic word to skinhead than to the elderly in the pre-test. Interference.  They were equal to process the colour of the word when there is a stereotypic word to skinhead and to the elderly in the post-test  Thus they were quicker to process the colour of the stereotypic word after the negation training and thus they were able to reduce stereotype.  Ultimately they are trying to get into the initial processing part where they are measuring the automatic and unconsciousness of the person. Reaction time measures implicit thoughts rather than explicit thoughts.  Training/expertise: police officers and the shooter bias  What are the effects of training on the shooter bias?  3 groups: Denver police, Denver community members, national police  Police officers receive extensive training to make shoot/don’t shoot decisions  Same video game task as in earlier paper  Possible Predictions:  Police show more bias than com
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