Lecture 4: Implicit Stereotyping
Explicit stereotyping: we openly endorse in public, we can control them.
However a lot of stereotyping is disprove of, and thus we do not use them most of the time.
Implicit stereotyping: we cannot control
Implicit stereotyping can guide us unconsciously. Eye contact, subtle movements when talking
to another person.
We usually think of stereotype application, where we show out stereotypes.
Stereotype activation is when a person is exposed to another person and a rush of stereotypes
appears in our mind. It happens unconsciously, when exposed to Black person traits of
aggression appears. We do not apply them. Priming.
Modern Racism Scale:
Indicate level of agreement or disagreement by choosing between -2 (strongly disagree) to
+2 (strongly agree). Examples:
1. Over the past few years, the government and news media have shown more respect
to Blacks than they deserve. Subtle and more modern.
2. Over the past few years Blacks have gotten more economically than they deserve.
However if you want to not seem prejudiced, you just have to disagree with all of them.
You have control over what you want to write.
Can the cultural stereotype of Blacks be automatically activated in low and high prejudiced
If so, then priming o the stereotype should increase ratings on hostility related scales for
both high and low prejudice people.
VERY IMPORTANT PAPER!!!!!
Automatically stereotyping: happening regardless of what we want to happen. Scary.
o White Intro Psychology students
o Modern Racism Scale measures prejudice level.
o Priming task is the perceptual Vigilance task. Participants encounter flashes very
quickly, they were words. Some words were related to black stereotypes.
o 1 independent variable: High or low prejudice.
o 2 independent variable: Number of words related to black stereotypes. Parafoveal
Priming: 80% vs. 20%. In both groups, some people were high and low in prejudice
o Impression Formation Task: Donald paragraph. Read about Donald. Donald has very
ambiguous behaviour. Refused to pay his rent unless his apartment is painted, and
refusing to let the salesman enter.
o It is unclear whether he is hostile or not. What is going to rate him as hostile or not is
dependent on the priming before. Were the participants exposed to black stereotype
words before? This is not stereotype application, this is just people have the black
stereotype words on their mind. Then rated Donald on traits some related to hostility and others unrelated traits. We want to see if the difference in priming would lead to
difference hostility scale.
o 80% primes rated Donald as more hostile than 20%. People did not see the words,
they were flashed subliminally. Yet they still thought about hostility when the black
stereotype was primed.
o People rated Donald equally in unrelated traits.
o Prejudice is not measured: there is no difference between high and low prejudice
o Prejudice did not matter on the activation of black stereotypes.
o Modern Racism scale does not predict stereotype activation.
o Equal activation between low and high prejudice people
o Belief vs. knowledge
o Although high and low prejudice shows equal activation, there is a difference
between believing in them and knowing them.
o Beliefs are when we apply stereotypes
o People who are not exposed to Black people will not have this stereotype activation.
o We can have control over our stereotypes activations, hostility came to mind but we
do not do anything about it. However what about under cognitive load?
o Low prejudiced people became low prejudiced through breaking a bad habit; they
have this natural response to associate stereotypes with groups. We need to break
that bad habit not easy. We need to break these associations between the
stereotype and personal beliefs.
Lepore and Brown:
Problems with Devine:
o Category vs. Stereotype priming: She primed a lot of black negative stereotype words.
o Semantic priming: when one is primed dog, they would also think wolf. This study
does not want to do semantic priming. As when we have lazy, we will think of
Devine: prime a bunch of negative stereotypes.
Lepore and Brown: when you prime a category without any semantic priming, will you
think of negative stereotype black words?
High prejudice people have a stronger association between blacks and negative stereotypic
Low prejudice people have a weaker association between blacks and negative stereotypic
Does high and low prejudice differ in their responses to automatic category activation?
(not stereotype priming)
o Pre-selected High and Low prejudice via mass testing
o Parafoveal priming: Category primes o Ambiguous paragraph: Mixed description
o Rated target on positive and negative stereotypic traits
o Everything was the same, except for priming of categories.
o Also looked at neutral traits.
o Negative traits: High prejudice people who receive a prime would rate Donald more
strongly negatively than when they were not exposed to a prime. Low prejudiced