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PSY323 Lecture7 Notes.pdf

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Alison Luby

Lecture 7- Obstacles to gender non-conformity 9/27/12 4:01 PM • Essay due on December 4 that 5pm- drop it to prof or psych office on 4 th floor 1. Model Backlash- next class o Rudman & Fairchild (2004) § The threat of backlash towards deviants might cause defensive reaction… § Self-esteem type ramifications 2. Cultural norms of stereotype legitimacy • In our culture we tend to feel stereotypes are accurate-- the leniency in making these assumptions they tend to perpetuate and go unabated • Stereotypic/ prejudicial attitudes towards most groups (ex. Racial and ethnic ones) are unacceptable • Prejudiced responses about racial groups common on implicit not explicit measures • People are motivated to avoid being prejudiced against most groups and say they want to be egalitarian • Individuals express guilt/ anxiety when they slip up and exhibit non-egalitarian behaviors o We know these beliefs shouldn’t be endorsed • On the other hand, we are allowed to endorse gender stereotypes and some prejudice o Prescriptive stereotypes • Society didn’t think of sexism as a problem until shockingly recently • When people exhibit sexism, instead of feeling guilt/ anxiety, they report amusement • Stereotypes/ attitudes towards feminists are quite negative in our society • Women do not like to identify with feminism for fear of being labeled as cold, uncool, lesbian • Normative endorsement of sexism could result from o Men being in higher status positions o Prejudice can also take the form of benevolent paternalism o And/ or the prescriptive stereotypes of women being positive in valence • Individuals who shed gender stereotypes are called gender vanguards o Swedish parent kept 2yr old’s gender a secret o We shouldn’t be ostracizing people for acting differently from the stereotypes o The only way to change the stereotypes is to have many instances of counter- stereotypical individuals/ gender vanguards § Too few instances, and it is easy to subtype instead of updating gender stereotypes § It is difficult to become a gender vanguard because of all of the pressures to conform § There also are insidious effects of gender stereotypes on people’s performance, which can lead to self- selection bias 3. Stereotype threat • Gave Caucasian and African American students math tests o Just thinking about race made African Americans underperform o There’s a threat that you will conform to your stereotype • Stereotype threat= The fear of confirming a negative stereotype in a situation where the stereotype is relevant, thus confirmable (Claude Steele 1997) • Stereotype threat may produce anxiety and negative feelings that interfere with performance • Stereotype threat occurs: o 1) When individuals engage in a task in a highly identified domain o 2) The task is associated with a known stereotype • Warren Moore- Black so people though he wouldn’t be such a good quarterback b/c blacks aren’t supposed to be smart • Steele & Aronson (1995) o Black & White college students completed items on a SAT test § ½ told that the test measured “general intelligence” § ½ told it was a exercise to test “problem solving” § Making the test non-diagnostic should reduce feelings of threat o When it was not framed as an intelligence test there was no significant difference o When they framed it as testing intelligence, the blacks underperformed § Nobody is immune to this perceived pressure making us underperform o Knowing that stereotypes may be relevant leads to anxiety and stress § Anxiety hurts performance § Stereotypes endure because the behavior ends up confirming the stereotype the person was trying so hard to avoid § Can stereotype threat activation be even more subtle than in the study we just saw! • Steele & Aronson (1995; Study 4) o Black & White Ps given same GRE verbal test o IV: the questionnaire did/didn’t have a space to record ones race o DV: participants performance on the GRE questions o When they checked race, the black people did significantly worse o Stereotype threat found in many types of studies: § Latinos taking verbal tests § Elderly taking short-term memory test § Low SES students taking verbal tests § Blacks and miniature golf § White males and athletic tests § White males taking math tests • Konig & Eagley (2005) o Men and women told the test addressed social sensitivity or complex info processing § Threat is when it’s the opposite gender linked framing § Men underperforming when they though they had to be socially sensitive and vice versa… • Since failure at important task is upsetting, continued experiences of stereotype threat leads to disidentification o Devaluing of a domain; no longer central to one’s self-concept o When you de-identify with the domain you self select out of the situation • Disidentification adaptiveàreduced anxiety • Disidentification maladaptiveàbarrier to achievement in domain • Decoupling self from education (effects of devaluaing domain) o IV: Black & White students given test and are given success vs. failure feedback o DV: Measured the participant’s….. o After success… § Success is contributing increased self esteem for whites § People were disidentifying with the domain --- not important to you (disidentification is a buffer to self- esteem) § Doing well or badly had no discernible effect on black’s esteem ú Indifference; no motivation § Self-selection leads to a self-sustaining prophecy • Reducing stereotype threat: site o Reframe the task-- ex. Black/white studies, we can try to reframe the idea of the test to reduce stereotype threat o Deemphasize threatened social identity o Encourage self-affirmation o Encourage high standards with capability for meeting them o Provide role models o Provide external attributions for difficulty • Spencer, Steele, Quinn (1999)- Study 1 o PS: students who received a B or higher in calculus; scored greater than 85 thpercentile on math SAT/ACT o Strongly agreed with: § I’m good at math § It’s important to me to be good at math o Come into lab in mixed groups o IV: easy v. difficult test o Stereotype threat effects should only affect individuals on the difficult test o We can perform well on easy tasks even when under pressure o Being with male can make them underperform o Was it stereotype threat that lead to these differences? • Spencer, Steele, Quinn (1999)- Study 2 o Half told gender differences; half told no gender differences o In the no gender difference condition: no difference o Spencer, Steele, Quinn (1999)- Study 3 § “No gender differences” or “no info” about gender differences § in control group women underperform • We can also try to deemphasize ones social identity • AP Calculus test asks individuals for demographics information, including gender, at start of test • AP Calculus grades for women improved and men’s declined when they were not asked to indicate gender before the test o (Dahner and Crandall 2008) • We can also reduce stereotype threat by reminding people that they are individuals • Ambady et al. (2004) o IV1: Subliminally primed participants with words relating/not relating to women § E.g., aunt, doll, dress, earring, flower, girl, grandma, jewelry, her. Vs. place, banana, salt, water, moat, pen. o IV2: ½ Ps asked individuating questions after the priming task Ex. Asked about favorite food, movie etc.; ½ asked topics unrelated to the self- ex. What do lions eat § DV: how they do on a math test? § Primed with gender, doing worse § Non individuated: stereotype threat effect ú Gender primed < not gender primed § Individuated: No stereotype threat effects ú Individuated primed = unprimed means o What if individual is a member of more than 1 groups? o What if these groups have competing stereotypes? • Shih Pittinsky, Ambady (1999) o Include Asian female participant o IV: Activated Female vs. Asian vs. No Identity o DV: GRE Math test o Primed with female (person putting on makeup) : underperforming o Primed with Asian (person eating noodles): performance increased o Reminding women about their self-complexity helps buffer against stereotype threat. Gresky, Ten Eyck, Lord, and McIntyre (2005) o Focusing in sex identity greater than stereotype threat o Focusing on other social identities less than stereotype threat (McGlone and Aronson 2006) o The more complex you make yourself you have other things to buffer yourself o Rydell, McCOnnel, Beilock: Reminding women college students that they are college students reduced stereotype threat effects o Focus on similarities (especially academic ones) between women and men < stereotype threat § Rosenthal, Crisp, and Suen (2007) • Self-affirmation: establishing or maintaining self-integrity and self- worth too • Martens, Johns, Greenberg, Schimel (2006) o M&F completed math test § Non-diagnostic v. math intelligence o 1⁄2 women in the stereotype threat condition affirmed a value before taking the test. o 1⁄2 women in the stereotype threat condition wrote about non-valued attributes. o Results: self affirmation gets women back up to normal level- - gives them a buffer against stereotype threat • Role models as buffer?? o Marx and Roman (2002) § M/F math-identified students greeted by M/F experimenter § Ps taking challenging math test (s)he’d designed. § (S)he’d provide feedback about participants’ mathematical strengths and weaknesses. § Will having a competent woman act as a buffer?? § Women show huge difference when they have a role model • Same-sex environment can attenuate stereotype threat effects o Inzlich & Ben Zeev (2000) • Instructing individuals to view intelligence as malleable (changeable, not fixed) can attenuate stereotype threat effects.- Aronson, Fried, and Good (2002) • What happens when you educate people about the effects of stereotype threat? o Make it worse: reminder of stereotype expectancies § Increase worry about confirming the negative stereotype o Or make it better § Can attribute poor performance to external elements § Protectionàattribute anxiety to stereotype threat, not an intrinsic inability to do w
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