Class Notes (836,324)
Canada (509,733)
Psychology (3,518)
PSY323H1 (28)
Lecture

PSY323 Lecture9 Notes.pdf

18 Pages
152 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSY323H1
Professor
Alison Luby
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 9 9/27/12 4:01 PM • I. Love and Romance • II. Romance and Benevolent Sexism • III. The Costs of Romantic Ideologies for Men • IV.Feminism and Romantic Relationships 1. Love and Romance o Romantic love is the intense feeling of attachment that we form with others. o Includes feelings of wanting to merge together, sexual attraction, and wanting to protect the other’s welfare. o Traditional romantic ideologies - prescriptive cultural scripts dictating the course of love-- we fall into patterns without thinking about them § Scripts dictate different love roles for men/women . § People fall into scripts without thinking. o What do you think are some of the traditional romantic ideologies for love? Ex. Friends episode-- different feelings about enacting these roles o Traditional romantic ideologies: § Stop us from experiencing love in our own way -- we try to fit into feminine and masculine roles § Diminish quality of heterosexual romantic relationships.-- perpetuates stereotype that love should be the most important thing to women § Create obstacles to attaining gender equality. o Romantic love (c.f., prescriptive romantic ideology) has many benefits: o People report feelings of high energy, euphoria, and “walking on air”-- lower levels of depression-- happens in both sexes o People report more positive attitudes toward the world in general § Hendrick & Hendrick (1988) o We feel like we merge with our partners, ultimately overlapping ourselves into other person… o Lovers idealize each other, which helps the relationship go slowly o Goodintimaterelationships increase our well-being psychologically and physiologically § Berschield & Reis 1998 2. Romance and Benevolent Sexism o Whereas romantic love is beneficial to relationships, romantic scripts pose problems. o We evaluate and interpret our realities in view of these schemas. o We come to expect romance to play out in this way. • When it does not, we feel disappointed & like we must not be living up to some standard of behaviour. • Ambivalent sexism and romance: ▯ Putting women on a pedestal is a form of benevolent sexism. • The romantic ideology for women involves valuing above all else love, family, relationships, and tending to others. • Gendered romantic ideologies encourage women to exchange agency for nurturing and a man’s protection. • Benevolent sexism in relationship = mixed blessing: o Protectiveness a man is supposed to have over a woman can be motivated by love. o But it could be based on the idea that women can’t take care of themselves. o Even more hostile, it could be a strategy of control.-- how do you tease them apart o A recipient of benevolent sexist treatment might be unsure about which motive to attribute to her romantic partner’s benevolent actions. • Responding to benevolent sexism is tricky: o Partners are supposed to care about each others’ welfare, and the male is socialized to take the protective, provider-type role. o We come to expect benevolent sexist treatment in our relationships. o Attribute the benevolent treatment to loving care or benevolent sexism? • Moya et al. (2007) o Participants were women who were low/high in benevolent sexism beliefs. o IV: Coworker/Husband insisted on doing all the driving on a long trip: o Hostile justification - “women do not drive as well as men” o Protective justification - “driving a long way would be tiring and stressful for the women” o DVs = reactions to the man’s behavior o Graph shows positive reactions (e.g., feeling protected). § No one liked hostile treatment § Women who scored high on BS (dark lines) reported: ú Especially positive feelings toward husband/less perceived discrimination when he used a protective justification to forbid her from driving § Women who scored low on BS did not o Study 3 § Will low benevolent sexist women feel better about protective motivations when situation is more dangerous? § Lawschool Ps imagined being offered a legal studies internship that reexamines evidence in a case where a convict claims to be innocent. § Interns were going to “conduct in-depth interviews with people who have been convicted of violent crimes, including murder”. § “When you explain the summer internship and all that it involves, your romantic partner strongly opposes your participation saying ‘I really think this is a bad idea. You shouldn’t do this!’” § Someparticipantsonlyreceivedawrittenstatementof opposition and no explanation. § Personalized protective justification-“I don’t think it’s good for you to be exposed to people who have committed violent crimes. It seems like a stressful and dangerous situation that wouldn’t be safe for you.” § Group-based protective justification-“Idon’tthinkit’s good for any woman to be exposed to people who have committed violent crimes. It seems like a stressful and dangerous situation that wouldn’t be safe for a woman.” § Results ú No justification–reason ambiguous • High-BS assumed benevolent motives (assumed out of love) • Low-BS did not ú Group-based protective justification • High-BS had a positive reaction • Low-BS did not like it when you limit their freedoms because of group-based justification ú Personalized protective justification overrode differences in BS-- low BS and high BS are reacting the same way to personalized people (attribution ambiguity-- super unpleasant) 3. The Socialization of Romance • Women have been socialized to a lifetime of exposure to romantic fairy tale themes • Rudman and Heppen (2003) – will implicit “romantic” belief that a man will provide for a woman be negatively related to her interest in personal power? o Ps rated interest in 12 occupations, 5 were high power o To determine romantic fantasies, Ps completed a scale with items like: o “IthinkofmyloverasaPrinceCharming,” o “IthinkofmyloverasaWhiteKnight,” o “Myromanticpartnerisveryprotectiveofme,” o “Ithinkofmyloverasahero,” o “Myromanticpartnerisanaverageman”(reverse scored) o Ps completed IAT contrasting romantic partners with other men and fantasy with reality. o ▯ E.g., (Prince Charming, White Knight, castle, superhero, protector) vs. (Average Joe, Regular Guy, ordinary, stable, predictable). o On the IAT, women were faster to associate romantic partners with fantasy than with reality. o Women who possessed implicit romantic fantasies chose occupations with reduced economic rewards and lower educational requirements. o ▯▯ They also showed less interest in high-status occupations. o The explicit (scale) measure of romantic fantasies did not reliably relate to the power measures. o Study2: § The first study used the idea of normality or average as the contrast to fantasy, but these ideas have negative connotations. § ▯ Study 2’s IAT contrasted romantic fantasies with positive traits (e.g., kind, intelligent, witty, affectionate, open, responsive, patient). § Replicated Study 1’s results. § Womenfastertoassociate romantic partners with fantasy than positive traits. § ▯ Womenwhopossessedimplicit romantic fantasies scored lower on projected income and high- status job measures. § ▯ Explicitromancemeasure unrelated to these power measures. § Theytermedtheseeffectsof romantic notions on power striving the “glass slipper effect”. § Alsotestedmen’simpressionsofwomen ▯ IAT included fantasy constructs like: Cinderella, § Sleeping Beauty, Rapunzel, princess, and maiden. § ▯ Completedexplicitromanticfantasyindexthatincluded items like: § ▯ “IthinkofmyloverasCinderella/SleepingBeauty,” ▯ “Itreatmyloverlikeaqueen,” ▯ “Iamveryprotectiveofmyromanticpartner,” ▯ “Ithinkofmyloverasmagical,” § “Itendtoputmyromanticpartneronapedestal.” § Men > Women on explicit romantic fantasy index. ▯ Men showed stronger IAT effects for positive traits § than fantasy roles. § ▯▯ Men who endorsed a romantic ideology also were interested in high social power jobs. § Might men be more likely to show a more sexual version of implicit romantic fantasies for women? o Study 3 § Women’s IAT included fantasy roles (e.g., Prince Charming, White Knight, Lancelot, Superman, hero, Braveheart, superhero, chivalry) with nonfantasy roles (e.g., companion, adviser, helper, teacher, student, counselor, roommate, handyman.) § IAT for men contrasted sexual fantasy roles (e.g., Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, princess, queen, sex goddess, sex kitten, Venus) with the same positive roles above. § Both men and women associated romantic partners with fantasy faster than with other favorable roles. § ▯ Men reported more explicit romantic fantasies. § ▯▯ Women who possessed implicit romantic fantasies scored lower on measures of projected income, education goals, high status jobs, and the desire to be a group leader. § Men showed weak associations between romantic fantasies and power. 3. The Cost of Romantic Ideologies for Men • Traditional gender roles suggest men should be less interested in romance. • M& W share more similarities than differences regarding romantic love.-- men fall in love faster??! o Sprecher et al. (1994) • Experience love with the same level of intensity o Hatfield and Rapson (1996) • In fact, men may be even more romantic than women. • Ackerman, Griskevicius, & Li (2011): o Who says “I love you” first in relationships? o Study 1: “Who normally says they are in love FIRST in romantic relationships?”- WOMEN o Study 2: “Think about your last or current romantic relationship .... In this relationship, who admitted love first?”- MEN---- relying on stereotypes despite anecdotal evidence o Study 3: Both members of couples were asked, “In your current romantic relationship, who admitted love first?”-- MEN o Explanations: Men maybe want the relationship to move on so more likely to say it to get women’s commitment • Women are allowed to fall deeply in love, but men are expected not to à remain strong and independent o Falling deeply in love can lead men to: § question their gender identity § deny their feelings to others § experience shame • Romantic relationships may be particularly important for men. • Women can turn to other same-sex friends for emotional support. • Men tend to confide only in their romantic partner-- in terms of deep intimate stuff • The thought of breaking up may be very threatening for men • Men show greater physiological distress when talking about serious conflicts or breaking up o Gottman (1993) • The distress men experience following a breakup can place women in danger • More likely to stalk and physically harm partners o Davis, Coker, & Sanderson (2002); Haugaard & Seri (2003) 4. Feminism and Romantic Relationships • Feminists viewed as man-hating lesbians o Bell & Klein (1996); Misciagno (1997) • Feminism seems incompatible with heterosexual romantic relationships • Feminists appear to violate traditional gender roles, including those related to romance--- stereotypes make it seem that feminism is incompatible with romance • Feminism and beauty are often seen to be incompatible o Goldberg, Gottesdiener, & Abramson (1975) • Women may avoid violating traditional gender roles out of fear that they will be rejected by men • Rudman & Fairchild (2007) o Male and female Ps looked at pictures of women from 1974 high school graduation photos o DVs: participants answered questions like: § “In my opinion, she is attractive.” § ”She was probably popular (dating-wise) in high school.” § “She likely became a lesbian.” § “She probably grew up to become a feminist.” o Results: § In comparison to pretty targets, plain targets were rated (by both men and women) as: ú Less attractive ú Less sexually appealing ú More likely to be lesbians ú More likely to be feminists § This belief that plain women were more likely to be feminists came from their beliefs that plain women are low on sex appeal or likely to be lesbians. o Study 2- Included Romantic conflict measure: § “Most men would probably not want to date a feminist” § “Feminism and romance do not mix well for women” § “Feminism causes women to resent men” § “Feminism can add stress to relationships with men” § Results: ú Participants who believed that feminism conflicts with romance showed: • Less engagement in feminism/women’s civil rights • Less positive attitudes about feminists • Less identification with feminists ú Romance-related concerns about feminism might barrier to gender equity. • Romance & Androgyny o Traditional gender roles seem problematic for romance. o Violating traditional gender roles may be good for romantic relationships. o Ickes and Barnes(1978): § Formed couples in the lab § Couples with at least one androgynous partner talked laughed, smiled, and looked at each other more o People are generally less happy with their marriage when both members of the couple adhere to traditional gender roles • Love Summary o Benevolent sexism can lead to attributional ambiguity about a partner’s motives. o Romantic roles give us scripts to follow when we finally become sexually involved with others. o These fantasy roles become automatic associations that come with c
More Less

Related notes for PSY323H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit