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PSY323 Lecture9 Notes.pdf

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Alison Luby

Lecture 9 9/27/12 4:01 PM • I. Love and Romance • II. Romance and Benevolent Sexism • III. The Costs of Romantic Ideologies for Men • IV.Feminism and Romantic Relationships 1. Love and Romance o Romantic love is the intense feeling of attachment that we form with others. o Includes feelings of wanting to merge together, sexual attraction, and wanting to protect the other’s welfare. o Traditional romantic ideologies - prescriptive cultural scripts dictating the course of love-- we fall into patterns without thinking about them § Scripts dictate different love roles for men/women . § People fall into scripts without thinking. o What do you think are some of the traditional romantic ideologies for love? Ex. Friends episode-- different feelings about enacting these roles o Traditional romantic ideologies: § Stop us from experiencing love in our own way -- we try to fit into feminine and masculine roles § Diminish quality of heterosexual romantic relationships.-- perpetuates stereotype that love should be the most important thing to women § Create obstacles to attaining gender equality. o Romantic love (c.f., prescriptive romantic ideology) has many benefits: o People report feelings of high energy, euphoria, and “walking on air”-- lower levels of depression-- happens in both sexes o People report more positive attitudes toward the world in general § Hendrick & Hendrick (1988) o We feel like we merge with our partners, ultimately overlapping ourselves into other person… o Lovers idealize each other, which helps the relationship go slowly o Goodintimaterelationships increase our well-being psychologically and physiologically § Berschield & Reis 1998 2. Romance and Benevolent Sexism o Whereas romantic love is beneficial to relationships, romantic scripts pose problems. o We evaluate and interpret our realities in view of these schemas. o We come to expect romance to play out in this way. • When it does not, we feel disappointed & like we must not be living up to some standard of behaviour. • Ambivalent sexism and romance: ▯ Putting women on a pedestal is a form of benevolent sexism. • The romantic ideology for women involves valuing above all else love, family, relationships, and tending to others. • Gendered romantic ideologies encourage women to exchange agency for nurturing and a man’s protection. • Benevolent sexism in relationship = mixed blessing: o Protectiveness a man is supposed to have over a woman can be motivated by love. o But it could be based on the idea that women can’t take care of themselves. o Even more hostile, it could be a strategy of control.-- how do you tease them apart o A recipient of benevolent sexist treatment might be unsure about which motive to attribute to her romantic partner’s benevolent actions. • Responding to benevolent sexism is tricky: o Partners are supposed to care about each others’ welfare, and the male is socialized to take the protective, provider-type role. o We come to expect benevolent sexist treatment in our relationships. o Attribute the benevolent treatment to loving care or benevolent sexism? • Moya et al. (2007) o Participants were women who were low/high in benevolent sexism beliefs. o IV: Coworker/Husband insisted on doing all the driving on a long trip: o Hostile justification - “women do not drive as well as men” o Protective justification - “driving a long way would be tiring and stressful for the women” o DVs = reactions to the man’s behavior o Graph shows positive reactions (e.g., feeling protected). § No one liked hostile treatment § Women who scored high on BS (dark lines) reported: ú Especially positive feelings toward husband/less perceived discrimination when he used a protective justification to forbid her from driving § Women who scored low on BS did not o Study 3 § Will low benevolent sexist women feel better about protective motivations when situation is more dangerous? § Lawschool Ps imagined being offered a legal studies internship that reexamines evidence in a case where a convict claims to be innocent. § Interns were going to “conduct in-depth interviews with people who have been convicted of violent crimes, including murder”. § “When you explain the summer internship and all that it involves, your romantic partner strongly opposes your participation saying ‘I really think this is a bad idea. You shouldn’t do this!’” § Someparticipantsonlyreceivedawrittenstatementof opposition and no explanation. § Personalized protective justification-“I don’t think it’s good for you to be exposed to people who have committed violent crimes. It seems like a stressful and dangerous situation that wouldn’t be safe for you.” § Group-based protective justification-“Idon’tthinkit’s good for any woman to be exposed to people who have committed violent crimes. It seems like a stressful and dangerous situation that wouldn’t be safe for a woman.” § Results ú No justification–reason ambiguous • High-BS assumed benevolent motives (assumed out of love) • Low-BS did not ú Group-based protective justification • High-BS had a positive reaction • Low-BS did not like it when you limit their freedoms because of group-based justification ú Personalized protective justification overrode differences in BS-- low BS and high BS are reacting the same way to personalized people (attribution ambiguity-- super unpleasant) 3. The Socialization of Romance • Women have been socialized to a lifetime of exposure to romantic fairy tale themes • Rudman and Heppen (2003) – will implicit “romantic” belief that a man will provide for a woman be negatively related to her interest in personal power? o Ps rated interest in 12 occupations, 5 were high power o To determine romantic fantasies, Ps completed a scale with items like: o “IthinkofmyloverasaPrinceCharming,” o “IthinkofmyloverasaWhiteKnight,” o “Myromanticpartnerisveryprotectiveofme,” o “Ithinkofmyloverasahero,” o “Myromanticpartnerisanaverageman”(reverse scored) o Ps completed IAT contrasting romantic partners with other men and fantasy with reality. o ▯ E.g., (Prince Charming, White Knight, castle, superhero, protector) vs. (Average Joe, Regular Guy, ordinary, stable, predictable). o On the IAT, women were faster to associate romantic partners with fantasy than with reality. o Women who possessed implicit romantic fantasies chose occupations with reduced economic rewards and lower educational requirements. o ▯▯ They also showed less interest in high-status occupations. o The explicit (scale) measure of romantic fantasies did not reliably relate to the power measures. o Study2: § The first study used the idea of normality or average as the contrast to fantasy, but these ideas have negative connotations. § ▯ Study 2’s IAT contrasted romantic fantasies with positive traits (e.g., kind, intelligent, witty, affectionate, open, responsive, patient). § Replicated Study 1’s results. § Womenfastertoassociate romantic partners with fantasy than positive traits. § ▯ Womenwhopossessedimplicit romantic fantasies scored lower on projected income and high- status job measures. § ▯ Explicitromancemeasure unrelated to these power measures. § Theytermedtheseeffectsof romantic notions on power striving the “glass slipper effect”. § Alsotestedmen’simpressionsofwomen ▯ IAT included fantasy constructs like: Cinderella, § Sleeping Beauty, Rapunzel, princess, and maiden. § ▯ Completedexplicitromanticfantasyindexthatincluded items like: § ▯ “IthinkofmyloverasCinderella/SleepingBeauty,” ▯ “Itreatmyloverlikeaqueen,” ▯ “Iamveryprotectiveofmyromanticpartner,” ▯ “Ithinkofmyloverasmagical,” § “Itendtoputmyromanticpartneronapedestal.” § Men > Women on explicit romantic fantasy index. ▯ Men showed stronger IAT effects for positive traits § than fantasy roles. § ▯▯ Men who endorsed a romantic ideology also were interested in high social power jobs. § Might men be more likely to show a more sexual version of implicit romantic fantasies for women? o Study 3 § Women’s IAT included fantasy roles (e.g., Prince Charming, White Knight, Lancelot, Superman, hero, Braveheart, superhero, chivalry) with nonfantasy roles (e.g., companion, adviser, helper, teacher, student, counselor, roommate, handyman.) § IAT for men contrasted sexual fantasy roles (e.g., Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, princess, queen, sex goddess, sex kitten, Venus) with the same positive roles above. § Both men and women associated romantic partners with fantasy faster than with other favorable roles. § ▯ Men reported more explicit romantic fantasies. § ▯▯ Women who possessed implicit romantic fantasies scored lower on measures of projected income, education goals, high status jobs, and the desire to be a group leader. § Men showed weak associations between romantic fantasies and power. 3. The Cost of Romantic Ideologies for Men • Traditional gender roles suggest men should be less interested in romance. • M& W share more similarities than differences regarding romantic love.-- men fall in love faster??! o Sprecher et al. (1994) • Experience love with the same level of intensity o Hatfield and Rapson (1996) • In fact, men may be even more romantic than women. • Ackerman, Griskevicius, & Li (2011): o Who says “I love you” first in relationships? o Study 1: “Who normally says they are in love FIRST in romantic relationships?”- WOMEN o Study 2: “Think about your last or current romantic relationship .... In this relationship, who admitted love first?”- MEN---- relying on stereotypes despite anecdotal evidence o Study 3: Both members of couples were asked, “In your current romantic relationship, who admitted love first?”-- MEN o Explanations: Men maybe want the relationship to move on so more likely to say it to get women’s commitment • Women are allowed to fall deeply in love, but men are expected not to à remain strong and independent o Falling deeply in love can lead men to: § question their gender identity § deny their feelings to others § experience shame • Romantic relationships may be particularly important for men. • Women can turn to other same-sex friends for emotional support. • Men tend to confide only in their romantic partner-- in terms of deep intimate stuff • The thought of breaking up may be very threatening for men • Men show greater physiological distress when talking about serious conflicts or breaking up o Gottman (1993) • The distress men experience following a breakup can place women in danger • More likely to stalk and physically harm partners o Davis, Coker, & Sanderson (2002); Haugaard & Seri (2003) 4. Feminism and Romantic Relationships • Feminists viewed as man-hating lesbians o Bell & Klein (1996); Misciagno (1997) • Feminism seems incompatible with heterosexual romantic relationships • Feminists appear to violate traditional gender roles, including those related to romance--- stereotypes make it seem that feminism is incompatible with romance • Feminism and beauty are often seen to be incompatible o Goldberg, Gottesdiener, & Abramson (1975) • Women may avoid violating traditional gender roles out of fear that they will be rejected by men • Rudman & Fairchild (2007) o Male and female Ps looked at pictures of women from 1974 high school graduation photos o DVs: participants answered questions like: § “In my opinion, she is attractive.” § ”She was probably popular (dating-wise) in high school.” § “She likely became a lesbian.” § “She probably grew up to become a feminist.” o Results: § In comparison to pretty targets, plain targets were rated (by both men and women) as: ú Less attractive ú Less sexually appealing ú More likely to be lesbians ú More likely to be feminists § This belief that plain women were more likely to be feminists came from their beliefs that plain women are low on sex appeal or likely to be lesbians. o Study 2- Included Romantic conflict measure: § “Most men would probably not want to date a feminist” § “Feminism and romance do not mix well for women” § “Feminism causes women to resent men” § “Feminism can add stress to relationships with men” § Results: ú Participants who believed that feminism conflicts with romance showed: • Less engagement in feminism/women’s civil rights • Less positive attitudes about feminists • Less identification with feminists ú Romance-related concerns about feminism might barrier to gender equity. • Romance & Androgyny o Traditional gender roles seem problematic for romance. o Violating traditional gender roles may be good for romantic relationships. o Ickes and Barnes(1978): § Formed couples in the lab § Couples with at least one androgynous partner talked laughed, smiled, and looked at each other more o People are generally less happy with their marriage when both members of the couple adhere to traditional gender roles • Love Summary o Benevolent sexism can lead to attributional ambiguity about a partner’s motives. o Romantic roles give us scripts to follow when we finally become sexually involved with others. o These fantasy roles become automatic associations that come with c
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