Chapter 12- Health promotion
Health promotion: strategies intended to maintain or improve the health of large populations.
Focusing on prevention and self-care are hallmarks
WHO-“the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health
National health promotion
ParticipACTION, aimed at increasing Canadians’ activity levels
Stairway to Health: taking the stairs rather than the elevator when at work
Medical level of health promotion: the orientation is disease-based and the goal is disease
Public health level of health promotion: the orientation is behaviour-based and the goal is disease
Socioenviromental level of health promotion: the orientation is toward social change and public
Social determinants of health: factors such as income, social support, education, working
conditions, and culture that have a significant effect on health at the population level.
Labonte three-level framework
Medical: a community might develop a program to help people recover from heart attacks
or devote funding to finding a cure for cancer.
Public health: behaviour based intervention would be the promotion of safe sex, or anti-
drinking and driving programs.
Socioenviromental: legislation to reduce poverty or school board policies to provide lunches
for school children.
The 2 and 3 levels are concerned with social determinants of health. (income, social
status, social support networks, education, employment/working conditions, personal
health practices and coping skills, healthy child development services, gender, and culture)
There is considerable evidence that the above have a greater impact than does medical
Age related health concerns: smoking, obesity 1 in 6 children
Health promotion mechanisms
We must be encouraged to look after ourselves
We must be encouraged to look after each other We must make our environments healthier by reducing pollution, improving safety, and
Locus of responsibility is placed squarely on the shoulders of the citizen
Self-care: exercise, diet, risk behaviours, voluntary screening and regular medical check-
Mutual aid: responsibility to family, friends, loved ones, and even society as a whole when
it comes to health and safety