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PSY333H1 Lecture 4

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Lisa Lipschitz

PSY333H1F L4 Oct 03 2013Marked by its high intensity long duration need for highendurance Ch 4 continuedEx Jogging bicycling swimming rope skipping Sun Safety Practices2 Anaerobic exerciseRequires short intensive bursts of energy but no increasedSkin Canceramt of oxygen use3 main types Improves speedendurance 1 Basal cell carcinoma sore that reoccurs sun exposed areasEx Shortdistance running softball short sprints to nextCannot spreadbase 2 Squamous cell carcinoma surface of the skin lining oforgans headneck 3 Isometric exerciseCan spreadInvolves contracting muscles against an immovable object 3 Melanoma in pigment cellsMuscles push hard against each other or against objectCan spreadIncreases strengthHarder to cureEx Pushing hard against a solid wallMost common warning sign is change in skin Nonmelanoma is generally curable 4 Isotonic exercise o More localized in sunexposed areasContraction of musclesthe movements of joints Increases strengthSkin Cancer PreventionSunscreen UseEx Weight liftingIn the last 30 yrs there has been nearly a 4fold increase inthe incidence of skin cancer 5 Isokinetic exerciseEach yr in Canada69000 new cases of skin cancerInvolves exerting effort to move musclesjoints against a diagnosed 1 mil worldwide variable amt of resistanceKey risk factor excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiationRequires specialized equipment ex Pulling on pulleysProblem Some ppl tend to fidn tans attractiveGood for rehab Ex Pilates yogaMahler Kulik Gibbons GerrardHarrell 2003 2 appearancebased interventions Reasons for Exercising o Beachgoers 68 in expt 1 76 in expt 2Healthyunhealthy reasons o Randomly assigned to 1 receive or not receive aReasons physical fitness weight control cardiovascular photoaging videobrochure on premature wrinklinghealth increased longevity protection against cancer age spots info intervention or 2 to receive or not a prevention of osteoporosis control of diabetes better novel ultraviolet photo interventionphoto taken w cognitive fningbuffer against depression anxiety and special UV filterspots under skin could get worse stress o Results UV photo intervention significantly increasedPhysical activity expenditure of energy either purposely or intentions to use sunscreens in the future wo intention as a result of bodily movements produced by o 1 mth followup Greater protective bhvrs less timeskeletal muscles as part of leisure or work activities more sunscreeno Intervention more likely when a person learns how Benefits of Exercise they are personally affectedExercise is not just about the optimization of body weightth WHO physical inactivity is the 4 leading risk factor for global Physical Activity mortality o causing 32 mil deaths globally per yr Types of Physical Activity 1 Aerobic exerciseDramatic increase in oxygen consumptionSustained exercise that stimulates and strengthens the heartlungs improving the bodys utilization of oxygen more than 2000 kcal a weeklowactivity expended fewer than 2000 kcal grps o Results least active had an increased risk of heart attack o Exercise benefitted men who smoked andor had a history of hypertension 35 reduction in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseaseMenwomen benefit but risk reduction for cardiovascular disease may be larger for women Lowers coronary heart diseaseResearch 305 studies w 399 274 indivs o No significant difference btwn exercisedrug treatment in reducing mortality for those w coronary heart disease or prediabetes symptomsEngaging in exerciseas effective as drugs o Stroke patients exercise was more effective than drugsExercise increases highdensity lipoprotein good cholesterol while decreasing lowdensity lipoprotein bad cholesterol Protection against cancer o Esp colorectalbreast Physical Fitnessesp among nonCaucasianDoes exercise help people become physically fitProtects against osteoporosis reduction in bone densityDependsdurationintensity and definition Fitness a complex condition consisting of muscle strengthControlling for Type 2 diabetes muscle endurance flexibility and cardiorespiratory aerobicLargest gains are from people who go from a sedentary fitness lifestyle to an active one o Combines all aspects f fitnessBenefits disappear after 5 yrs of no exerciseOrganic fitness capacity for actionmovement determined byPhysically active people can expect an avg increase in inherent characteristics of the body genetics age health longevity of about 2 years 33 reduction in risk of death o Innate Dynamic fitness arises thru physical activityIts never too late o Can change thru practiceResearch in spain 24 participants aged 9196 yr oldsEx Michael Phelps has both organicdynamic fitness o Grps 1 intervention or 2 control grpMuscle strength measure of how strongly a muscle can o Intervention strength training program for 12 wks contract o Strength trainingbalance exercises 2dys a wkMuscle endurance requires continued performance o Results o A muscle can be strong but not have the endurance tosignificant improvement for intervention grp in continue its performance balanceEx Can lift a weight once but not many timesreduced chances of falling increased walking o Exercises that improve strength require greater speed better capacity t get out of chairs exertion for limited repetitionso Exercises that improve endurance require less exertion Effects of Exercise on Psychological States but more frequent repetitionImproves moodfeelings of wellbeingFlexibility range of motion capacity of a joint oShortlongterm o Specific to each joint o Treatment for depression o Protective factor High flexibility decreases likelihoodSelfefficacy increases release of endorphins of injuryCombats the adverse effects of stressWhy its important to stretch before exercising o Those who are more fit experience less distresso Exercise moderates the increase in blood pressure Effects of Exercise o Moderate exercise can boost wellbeing Early 1900s physicians advised patients w heart disease toEnhance optimism selfesteem avoid strenuous activityofewer physical symptomsmore ve1953 Morris at al discovered that physically active male psychological wellbeing conductors of the doubledecker buses in London differed ofeel healthier better about selves from sedentary drivers in their incidence of heart diseaseo Exercise acted as a protective factor against heartTrait anxiety genetic personality characteristic that manifests disease itself as a constant feeling of dread or uneasiness1978 Paffenbarger et al examined medical records of former o Anxious often Harvard students and divided the alumni into high expendedState anxiety temporary affective condition that stems from a specific situation
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