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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

PSY336 22 Goals & Motivation 1) Koestner, R., Lekes, N., Powers, T. A., & Chicoine, E. (2002). Attaining personal goals: Self-concordance plus implementation intentions equals success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(1), 231-244. 2) Sheldon, K. M., Kasser, T., Smith, K., & Share, T. (2002). Personal goals and psychological growth: Testing an intervention to enhance goal attainment and personality integration. Journal of Personality, 70(1), 5-31.  Mischelle -Marshmallow experiment (wait time) when they were kids -> SAT scores later in their teens  Personal / life programs  Tony Robins program  The Procrastination equation Procrastination: (Expectancy X value) / (Impulsiveness x delay)  Self-esteem in different domains -optimism -self-efficacy  The theory of planned behavior (TPB) -Behaviour -intentions >person’s attitude towards behavior >social norms towards behavior >perceptions of control  Most people come out of Grad school depressed  Grad school is brutal on people’s self-esteem -reason: structure  Undergrad -feedback >marks on exams and papers >corrective motivator >keeps on task  Take your big abstract goals and break them down to smaller concrete sub goals -Fuzzy future vs concrete present  Building a feedback system into your goal can be very effective  Implementation intentions - Gollwitzer -the difference between setting a goal with yourself and setting a goal and specifying for yourself: how you are going to do it -Mini CBT procedure? -coming up with a way to replace negative thoughts with positive productive thoughts -creating a list of your failure and successes -strengths and weaknesses -make it a little bit more concrete and tangible -new intervention strategy: when you are feeling down, take out the list and read it  Seligman -learned Optimism >Permanence (always) >Pervasiveness (everything) -negative attributions >when people don’t do well in something they blame themselves -CBT therapists attack that approach  Carol Dweck (The fixed vs growth theory) -Kids dropping out of school identified themselves as not smart (as if it’s a fixed quantity)
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