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Lecture 9

PSY341H1 Lecture 9

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University of Toronto St. George
Hywel Morgan

PSY341H1S L9; Aug 07, 2013   conflict Clinical Syndromes of Adolescence o Good for the adolescent, not always good for parents  Usually start in adolescence  90% adults w substance/alcohol abuse problems started in o Does not occur in Autism & Mental Retardation adolescence b. Loyalties develop & become important o Intimacy becomes valued Three Basic Domains in which Change Occurs in Adolescents o Personal preferences develop for particular ppl  What is adolescence? o Loyalties to a grp (usually but not always peers) o Attachment to ppl other than parents develop  A period of great upheaval & change o So actually quite difficult to diagnose c. Desire for social acceptance psychopathology o Peer influences become primary  Friends are important o The crazy bhvr in adolescence is quite normal o Desire social acceptance from ppl w similar  Ex. Labile affect (moodswings) caused by significant hormonal changes interests o A lot of change in bhvr o Cliques: Ppl w like interests congregate w each other o Difficult to distinguish normal from abnormal  After age 12  Significant social change away from the  Age 12-19 family to peers w similar social interests d. Arguments w parents become quite common o Perhaps a little after o Will talk about this in cognitive domain o Brain is still developing mentally at age 23 o So some psychologists would includes ages 12-23  1 aspect of conflict: teenagers think they’re always right (normal)  Some plasticity can still occur o Schedules, curfews  Although legally and socially considered adults o e. Dating o Dating someone you are sexually or romantically A) Biological interested in a. Puberty (early adolescence) o Growth spurt (ex. btwn 12-14) o Someone you are attracted to spend a lot of time with o Significant hormonal changes o Can be either sex  Labile affect o Growth changes  Men: shoulders, chest C) Cognitive  Piaget described this as Operational Stage (change in  Women: hips thinking): o Secondary sex characteristics develop  Hair o Frontal cortex developing reasoning, problem solving, judgement  Menstruation o Significant cognitive changes b. Sexuality o A contentious issue, not well understood, not well defined a. Ability to think & reason o Often idealistic – doesn’t mean they’re wrong  Does seem to be at least partly hormonally  It means that we as adults consider them driven  Who & why you are sexually attracted to impractical, however as sensible adults we should recognize them as good ideas is niot well understood b. Assert individuality o Interest in sexual bhvr o Homosexuality no longer considered a disorder o I have ideas that matter & they might conflict w o DSM V removed Gender Identity Disorder your ideas o I have cognitive thoughts that are my own & they c. Nutritional needs & eating patterns o Clearly related to growth spurts might conflict w yours o Proteins, calcium, B vitamins (12, 6), D vitamins c. De-idealization of parents o I have ideas that I think are right and i think my  Bones growing quickly parents I wrong  Proteins for metabolism o Naturally gravitate to orange juice & milk o I used to think my parents were perfect o They used to decide everything for me o Gender change in eating patterns o I used to go to them for advice  Boys now eat more than girls (used to be the opposite)  Now going to peers o Age 15, 16  my parents weren’t right about that  I resent them for it B) Social  At times these changes may seem unreasonable & abnormal  Before puberty, main social interactions are w parents  After puberty: main interactions w peers but it’s not  However these changes can become abnormal a. Increase in autonomous feelings o Increase in emotional distance from parents o Increased sense of “me” and “you”, and I have my 3 Major Psychopathologies of Adolescence  A lot of intensity in teen years is normal, so need to look at own ideas about who I should socialize w relative change in bhvr  Parents don’t like this  Often difficult to determine whether normal or abnormal o Pills usually come n pill form of HCl (so won’t dissolve since high intensity of bhvr’al change in stomach and will go into circulatory system)  Injection into bloodstream 1. Drug abuse o Intravenous (IV)  Use & abuse of drugs during this age period is statistically  Most efficient way of getting drug to brain normal, so difficult to determine when bhvr is pathological or within 4-5 seconds not  Teens often end up doing this if they become  High insensity, high frequencty drug abusers o Subcutaneous (under the skin)  A lot of research in Ontario by CAMH since an extremely common disorder  Patches (ex. Nicorette)  LSD, Cocaine since so potent  Cocaine easily dissolves in nose since Prevalence  Arrests for illegal drug use among teens has increased by over thin skin membrane 5000% since 1960  Dissolves across epithelial barrier  LSD typically underneath tongue  Illegal drug use accounts for 15% for all arrests among teens  50% of teens admit to illegal drug use (doesn’t include  Since vein so close to skin alcohol)  Rectum – Suppository   dissolved across epithelial barrier o 80% report general drug use (includes alcohol) o Marijuana used most frequently o Intraperitoneal (taking long needle & stick into body  About 1 in 3 highschoolers report they have used marijuana in cavity) last 3 months  Very efficient way of getting drug to all parts  All of these statistic suggest normal bhvr of body cavity  Teens are more likely to use combinations of drugs than other  Not particularly desirable way o Intramuscular ages grps  Teen males have a higher incidence of drug use than femaes  Vaccines by a ratio of 2:1  Inhalation o Very common, efficient, quick  Most of this data does not include over the counter, o Not quite as easy as injestion prescription, inhalant drugs  The most commonly abused mind-altering drug in the o Teenager’s preferred method o Goes to lungs  take atmosphere to brain world: Caffeine  Purpose of lungs o Stimulant – alertness, attention, wakes up the brain o Withdrawal symptoms: grumpy headache o Smoking  Due to dependency o Vaporizers (ex. when smoking marijuana)  Snorting (different from inhaling) o Readily available, not restrictive o Does have beneficial effects: enhances level of o Dissolves across brain membranes arousal, makes you more attentive Types of Drugs o But because it is a drug you can develop a tolerance to, and experience withdrawal from, you can get  Rly difficult to determine what a drug is addicted to it o A substance that gets into your body to alter your brain fn & how you think or feel  Fastest growing drug of abuse among teenagers is not an illicit drug (ex. not caffeine, not illegal) o This definition includes sugar o Cough syrup = Depressant  drowsy, pleasurable  These drugs significantly alter the way a person thinks & feels o Typically give you a high – significant pleasurable effect o Dangerous thing about depressants: easy to feeling associated for many (but not all) ppl overdose  death  7 most commonly abuse illegal drugs in teenagers  Calms nervous system  #1 predictor of someone abusing a drug: environmental  Can stop breathing, heart rate o Availability o In most states, limited to buying 2 bottles at a time 1. Heroin o Most dangerous  Teen likely of abusing it  Phenomenon of Robotripping: Use o Occurs naturally in poppy plant Robotusin to get a trip  Grows well in mild too dry climate o The abuse typically occurs in adolescence  Not done in Canada since not as much of an issue o “Hard drug” since the created euphoria is intense  Directly stimulates the pleasure centres of the Modes of Use brain (VTA, nucleus accumbens)  Any modes can be used for any drugs o Referred to as narcotics, opiates  Ingestion  Ex. Oxycotin – doesn’t take away pain but takes o Most common since noninvasive, easy away emotion/feeling associated w pain o Brain has endogenous opiates that act as o Most teens start this way o Problem: slow, drug broken down in stomach neurotransmitters in pleasure centre of brain  Hard to get drug to brain from stomach o Easy to get addicted  lifelong struggle  Cure rate: 1% o Historically more likely to have occurred in  Commonly used impoverished communities  Suffer large level of psychological & physical pain 5. Cocaine o Users likely to have lower self-esteem, sad childhood, o Stimulant low parent involvement o Occurs naturally in the coca plant leaf o Teens likely to become withdrawn, solitary  A weed, grows wild o 25% suicide rate  Often the leaf is chewed as a mild stimulant o Prognosis not good o Characteristic effect is increased mental agility o Due to availability (mostly from south east Asia),  Often seen in doctors, lawyers mostly use in Vancouver o Makes you feel like “king of the world, master of the  Highest heroin addiction rate in Canada universe” o Short term effects: strong CNS depressant o Use has declined significanty in last 20yrs o Very high likelihood of overdose o Long-term side effects: o Likely to die from use  Heart attack  Cory Monteith (Glee) – tolerance reduced due to  Damaged nasal cavity (from snorting)  scar therapy, but then took his old usual dose  tissue  surgery death 6. Barbiturates 2. Marijuana o Aka “Downers” o Occurs naturally o Depressants o Many street names: Weed, pot, jane, gunja, etc. o Probably most common adult psypathology is anxiety o Often shared amongst peers for acceptance, act of  Common treatments are depressants rebellion, method of coping w problems  Used to use valium, not anymore since addictive o Kids w ADHD frequently self-medicate w marijuana  Now use benzodiazapine agonists  encourages o Method of high-production not well understood release of GABA (inhibitory) in amygdala  Level of high depends of person & situation  Most commonly use Ativan (lorazepam) o Neither a stimulant or depressant  Both can happen 7. Alcohol  Method in which it acts not well understood o Depressant o Can also emulate hallucinogens o Research shows alcohol more harmful than marijuana  Can end up in hospital o Death usually from choking on own vomit o Long-term detrimental effects not known o Will typically pass out before killing self  Many contradictory studies o Short-term effects: o Cannot overdose
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