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PSY341H1S Lecture 2.docx

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Hywel Morgan

PSY341H1S Lecture 2: Developmental Psychology  Abnormal vs. normal development, we prefer the growing child to be above the statistical average in almost all aspects of development  Babies born below average birth weights (7lbs) are referred to as premature or abnormal; above we refer to as healthy (above average, which is technically abnormal as it strays from the norm)  What constitutes normal development?  What factors effect development?  Methodological and interpretation limitations of diagnosis and subsequent treatment? 4 general principles of development: 1. Direction: in terms of stature the first body part to develop is the head; it goes from head to tail because the head develops in utero, wherein the head is the same size as the torso at birth. Physical development occurs from the central axis to the periphery 2. Progression: proceeds in 2 ways: from general to specific, very visible in the pain reflex. If you apply a moderately painful stimuli to an infant, you see a qualitatively different reflex in infants than in adults. The response you see in infants is very general. You see the entire body withdraw from the painful stimuli. Adults don’t show that reflex, they are more specific. They withdraw a specific portion that is exposed to the stimuli. Asynchronize growth is the other proceeding way (specific to general). For example, puberty. Development occurs at different rates and times. 3. Personal and Social: occurs from undifferentiated (meaning not different) to distinctive and self-dependent. Newborn infants are very dependent on their caregivers. We grow slowly both cognitively and physically. 4. Maturational and Readiness: requires qualitative physical alterations in size for kids to learn certain cognitive tasks. Growth must happen in brain before being able to complete certain tasks. Trying to teach a child a task before they are matured is useless.  Factors that effect development: 1. Biology/hereditary  Concordance rate for twins reared apart with precursors for schizophrenia is 50%. There is something about the environment that contributes to the disorder 2. Temperament  Clearly influenced in genes; something that you are born with. It is the way you interact with the environment. It is referred to as proto- personality. Because even from infancy you see the expression of a temperament. It has a clear emotional component as well.  3 types of temperaments: easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm up, wherein most fall into easy or slow-to-warm up   Cholic: infants that are difficult to soothe, always crying, vomiting, restless, and won’t sleep. It is not in the DSM-IV TR. 15-20% of infants.  Temperament also falls into 2 different categories: introverts and extroverts 3. Parent-Child Interactions 4. Schools 5. Peer Relations  Development arrests when there isn’t an affective bond with a parent or a caregiver and if it doesn’t occurs, there is no development – cognitively or physically  The lack of emotional bonding is what arrests physical development, not a lack of physical stimuli (i.e. food, water)  You should know the names of these experimenters and their experiments: Lorenz, Harlow (the infant monkeys that had no mother but a barbwire )  Windows of opportunity  More likely to be delayed physiologically and detached emotionally if you are not taken care of  Stems into conduct disorder, and asocial personality if the conduct disorder is not treated. This becomes a part of who you are, it can be treated by not cured. There is a critical period where they may be saved. This disorder is called reactive attachment disorder.  Resilience: ability to recover from adverse circumstances.  Playtime, seek out father. Stressed out, seek mother. In terms of intellectual development, it is best to have a mother and a father figure. Not necessarily in the same home  Next to family, school is the next more important fact in development and the teacher in an elementary school i
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