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February Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Sol Goldberg

February 5, 13 - What happens with the birth and establishment of Christianity in relation to a-S. - Middle Ages – breaking up the history of a-S - Every part of a-S eventually leads up to the Nazis – need to think about the middle ages – which produce those final moments. – define what is a-S in the middle ages. - Doctrine of the Church for Jews – minimal tolerance for the Jews. - Jewish/Christian relations in Christendom - Jewish/Christian relations under Islam. - What benefit to studying a phenomena – the purpose of doing comparisons – where do we draw the line from what we call a-S and normative types of hostility? - ^Comparisons – draw lines and see the difference between both. - The entire history of a-S is blaming Christianity - Christianity takes over the hostility of the Jews – Pagan converts to Christianity less sympathetic of Jews. - Self definition of Christians in antiquity and today. - View of the medieval C society was the worst - Golden age of Jewish/Muslim relations - ~711CE Spain - Cohen describes about the myth of the Golden Age - Neo-lachrymose history of Jewish/Muslim relations – it was actually bad for Jews in Muslim lands. - Jewish/Christian relations were better in comparison. - Make it generalizable – not just in one context – (social scientist pov). - Comparing the best of medieval Islam and the worst of medieval Christianity. - The basis for an explanatory model/paradigm – antecedent conditions - Become the most irrational and vicious claims against the Jews. - Host desecration and blood libel. – For ritual reasons they want to use Christian blood to make matza/reenacting the death of Christ. - Psychological/social function – Jews being Christ figures. - Jews of all people should follow Jesus – but they don't understand the text enough – because of this they are blind to the truth of their text and the “truth” of Jesus. - First – blind to him being the messiah, second – they know but they are just evil. - Change in this image of Jews from being blind to their scriptures to malicious and evil. - Rise of medieval ages. - 300CE – Romans cracking down on Christianity – breeds a new kind of Christian martyr. - Hostility among Christians for Jews for not taking the Christian’s side. - By the end of the 4thC – Emperor Constantine converts and makes Christianity the Empire’s official religion. - Condition of religion under the Roman Empire – Pantheon of Pagan religions. - Old Testament sacred to Christianity – Jews have a role to play in history. - They could have taken this opportunity to wipe Judaism out. - Jews are a witness to the “truth” of Christianity and revelation. - They are also, in their defeated position – they don't need to kill them but they don't treat them well – but also they see their triumph over Judaism. - Unlike other groups to convert – they are not to be forced to convert – its at that moment where they acknowledge the truth of Christianity the second coming will happen. - ^Problem if you are a Christian – Jewish blindness to Christianity. - Why extreme forms of a-S in Christianity not in Islam - How did it collapse (around the 12thC) – association with the devil – expulsion from territories. - In relations to Host desecrations: - 1) Christians see some Jewish practices and misrepresent them - 2) miracle of transubstantiation – Christians have doubts. - Jews would turn it to the body of Jesus to persecute him again.- shows how the miracle is real. - Psychological explanations - The worst explanation of the Jews is the threat to the identity of themselves. - Islam – take over near eastern religious pluralism – changing it to their own need. - Takes over a near eastern religious pluralism - No deicide between Jews and Muslims - No jealousy when over Roman rule. - In Europe – disappearance of minorities while under Islam they continue to exist. - Maimonides – acknowledged for his abilities but viewed as inferior. - Elukin – reason to think that the fact of Jewish survival tells us something about what’s normal in Jewish/Christian relations. - Not that it was a persecuting society – why a certain type of violence occurred – How Jews survived? – no explanation for this. February 12, 13 - Secularization/modernization – process - That process itself is at the root of our own historical - How we ourselves regard ethnic/religious differences – option 1, Tolerate – option 2, or somehow value esteemed differences – option 3. - Enlightenment – breakdown of Christian world view – what emerges is the opinion of the best possible society. - Why shouldn't anti-Semitism persisted in the modern world? - Why did it? - To what extent did it persist/intensify? - What form did it take – what does it owe to its medieval predecessor - Under which conditions were Jews better off? Medieval or Modern? - What effect does emancipation have on Jewish lives. - The term emancipation was coined in Germany 1870’s – Jewish emancipation – civic betterment of the Jews - What is the debate about? - Whether Jews should be excluded from the modern state and its equal rights for all citizens. - Should Jews have equal rights? – They should extend universally (common humanity underlying different social institutions). - The differences which separate each of us are accidents of who we are – underneath it all we are all the same. - Those differences which we take to be so profound would disappear. - How we view this problem of difference – why is it a good thing? - ^Have no reason to discriminate against them – they are all the same. - We cling to our differences because we think that ours are superior to other people and their beliefs. - The differences which we take to be important to us should be disregarded. - A different view today – value in difference - Why should this Christian world want to extend equal rights to the Jews? - ^They couldn't not extend those rights under their new ideology. - The thought of Jews not incorporated in society would go against the principles being advocated. - Emancipation in all is not a product of Christianity it is a product of the opposition to Christianity. - The enlightenment is interested in bringing down the Christian way of living. - If Christian doctrine lost its credibility in a secular world and this is the only justification for the exclusion of Jews, - ^We can expect anti-Jewish images disappear - ^but they don't - They don't only retain their force – they actually pick up a different tenacity. - Not a lingering hostility towards Jews – It’s Jews… - Is this a new kind of Jew hatred? - Borrow social scientific and linguistic terms to label their hatred towards Jews. - In the M.A. you have accusations from an in-group towards an out- group – in the modern context – y
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