February 5, 13
- What happens with the birth and establishment of Christianity in
relation to a-S.
- Middle Ages – breaking up the history of a-S
- Every part of a-S eventually leads up to the Nazis – need to think
about the middle ages – which produce those final moments. –
define what is a-S in the middle ages.
- Doctrine of the Church for Jews – minimal tolerance for the Jews.
- Jewish/Christian relations in Christendom
- Jewish/Christian relations under Islam.
- What benefit to studying a phenomena – the purpose of doing
comparisons – where do we draw the line from what we call a-S
and normative types of hostility?
- ^Comparisons – draw lines and see the difference between both.
- The entire history of a-S is blaming Christianity
- Christianity takes over the hostility of the Jews – Pagan converts to
Christianity less sympathetic of Jews.
- Self definition of Christians in antiquity and today.
- View of the medieval C society was the worst
- Golden age of Jewish/Muslim relations - ~711CE Spain
- Cohen describes about the myth of the Golden Age
- Neo-lachrymose history of Jewish/Muslim relations – it was actually
bad for Jews in Muslim lands.
- Jewish/Christian relations were better in comparison.
- Make it generalizable – not just in one context – (social scientist
- Comparing the best of medieval Islam and the worst of medieval
- The basis for an explanatory model/paradigm – antecedent
- Become the most irrational and vicious claims against the Jews.
- Host desecration and blood libel. – For ritual reasons they want to
use Christian blood to make matza/reenacting the death of Christ.
- Psychological/social function – Jews being Christ figures.
- Jews of all people should follow Jesus – but they don't understand
the text enough – because of this they are blind to the truth of their
text and the “truth” of Jesus.
- First – blind to him being the messiah, second – they know but they
are just evil.
- Change in this image of Jews from being blind to their scriptures to
malicious and evil.
- Rise of medieval ages.
- 300CE – Romans cracking down on Christianity – breeds a new kind
of Christian martyr. - Hostility among Christians for Jews for not taking the Christian’s
- By the end of the 4thC – Emperor Constantine converts and makes
Christianity the Empire’s official religion.
- Condition of religion under the Roman Empire – Pantheon of Pagan
- Old Testament sacred to Christianity – Jews have a role to play in
- They could have taken this opportunity to wipe Judaism out.
- Jews are a witness to the “truth” of Christianity and revelation.
- They are also, in their defeated position – they don't need to kill
them but they don't treat them well – but also they see their
triumph over Judaism.
- Unlike other groups to convert – they are not to be forced to
convert – its at that moment where they acknowledge the truth of
Christianity the second coming will happen.
- ^Problem if you are a Christian – Jewish blindness to Christianity.
- Why extreme forms of a-S in Christianity not in Islam
- How did it collapse (around the 12thC) – association with the devil
– expulsion from territories.
- In relations to Host desecrations:
- 1) Christians see some Jewish practices and misrepresent them
- 2) miracle of transubstantiation – Christians have doubts.
- Jews would turn it to the body of Jesus to persecute him again.-
shows how the miracle is real.
- Psychological explanations
- The worst explanation of the Jews is the threat to the identity of
- Islam – take over near eastern religious pluralism – changing it to
their own need.
- Takes over a near eastern religious pluralism
- No deicide between Jews and Muslims
- No jealousy when over Roman rule.
- In Europe – disappearance of minorities while under Islam they
continue to exist.
- Maimonides – acknowledged for his abilities but viewed as inferior.
- Elukin – reason to think that the fact of Jewish survival tells us
something about what’s normal in Jewish/Christian relations.
- Not that it was a persecuting society – why a certain type of
violence occurred – How Jews survived? – no explanation for this.
February 12, 13
- Secularization/modernization – process
- That process itself is at the root of our own historical - How we ourselves regard ethnic/religious differences – option 1,
Tolerate – option 2, or somehow value esteemed differences –
- Enlightenment – breakdown of Christian world view – what emerges
is the opinion of the best possible society.
- Why shouldn't anti-Semitism persisted in the modern world?
- Why did it?
- To what extent did it persist/intensify?
- What form did it take – what does it owe to its medieval
- Under which conditions were Jews better off? Medieval or Modern?
- What effect does emancipation have on Jewish lives.
- The term emancipation was coined in Germany 1870’s – Jewish
emancipation – civic betterment of the Jews
- What is the debate about?
- Whether Jews should be excluded from the modern state and its
equal rights for all citizens.
- Should Jews have equal rights? – They should extend universally
(common humanity underlying different social institutions).
- The differences which separate each of us are accidents of who we
are – underneath it all we are all the same.
- Those differences which we take to be so profound would disappear.
- How we view this problem of difference – why is it a good thing?
- ^Have no reason to discriminate against them – they are all the
- We cling to our differences because we think that ours are superior
to other people and their beliefs.
- The differences which we take to be important to us should be
- A different view today – value in difference
- Why should this Christian world want to extend equal rights to the
- ^They couldn't not extend those rights under their new ideology.
- The thought of Jews not incorporated in society would go against
the principles being advocated.
- Emancipation in all is not a product of Christianity it is a product of
the opposition to Christianity.
- The enlightenment is interested in bringing down the Christian way
- If Christian doctrine lost its credibility in a secular world and this is
the only justification for the exclusion of Jews,
- ^We can expect anti-Jewish images disappear
- ^but they don't - They don't only retain their force – they actually pick up a different
- Not a lingering hostility towards Jews – It’s Jews…
- Is this a new kind of Jew hatred?
- Borrow social scientific and linguistic terms to label their hatred
- In the M.A. you have accusations from an in-group towards an out-
group – in the modern context – y