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University of Toronto St. George
Joseph Bryant

April 4 12 Indications of SecularizationIntern Social Survey Programme ISSP and the iWorld Values Survey WVSReligion low importance ranking for Western Europe 1998Family 81 Work 53 Friends 43 Leisure 38 Religion 19 Politics 8Views on the Bible 1991actual word of Gd 55 Poland 26 Italy 6 Denmark 32 USA 25 Israel 10 Russiainspired but not literal 26 Poland 51 Italy 17 Denmark 47 USA 26 Israel 16 RussiaWhat kind of Gd personal Gd36 Western Europe a spirit or vital force34 there is no Gd111981 European Value Survey Only 25 affirm there is only one true religion53 agree there are value to all religionsAnxiety of death will not disappear in post industrial societiesModernity as a Second Axial AgeAxial AgesBroad reshaping of the symbolic field resulting in new understandings of human existence social life the cosmosFirst Axial Age Brahminical HinduismBuddhismConfucianismDaoismJewish monotheismChristianity and Islam Greek philosophy and HumanismJaspers identified four decisive features of Modernity1 Primacy of modern science and technology2 Craving for individual freedom and selfcultivation Romanticism3 The historic emergence of the massesdemocracy nationalism socialismThe masses to make history4 Globalization through the relentless spread of technology driven capitalismModernitys cluster of challenges to the First Axial Age ReligionsA focus on thisworldliness through the wonders of technology modern medicineThrough globalization growing pluralismrelativismWith rising individualism selfspiritualityhumanism TPaine My mind is my ChurchDemystification as science is applied to understandingexplaining faith traditionsand demythologization sacred stories of creation lose plausibility as do accounts of the miraculous and supernatural ancient fables when human beings lacked genuine knowledge of the world around them
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