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La Grone (9)

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La Grone

January 28, 13 - Rabbinic attitudes about diaspora - Exile – negative view - G-d repents about exile - Ishmaelites = Muslims - Tosephta - Why were the Jews exiled to Babylonia more than any other land – Abraham was from Babylonia – They are in their father’s home – Exile is a bad thing, but it’s a home to go to. - Shekinah – aspect of G-d – attribute of G-d – which goes with Israel in exile. (feminine element of G-d) close to G-d and the weakest part of G-d. - Unlike other ancient gods G-d is portable. - When the Temple is destroyed – charity – collective atonement was through sacrifice – prayer replaces sacrifice (more standardized prayer as compared to before). - G-d had mercy on the Jewish people and “scattered them among the nations”. - By living outside of Israel some of the commandments cannot be done. - The Jews in Babylonia see themselves as superior to other Jews in exile. - They feel at home in Babylonia - R Eliezer – G-d spread the Jews around the nations in order to attract gentiles/prostalizers to Judaism. - Taking on Jewish customs – The father observes Sabbath, the son doesn't eat pork and the grandchild is circumcised. - Reason for exile – increase the number of Jews through converts. - After Christianity is the major religion, Jews are not allowed to convert people. - “On the day the Temple was destroyed, the Redeemer was born.” - ^Positive spin to the destruction of the Temple. - Josephus – Worked closely with Romans. - Ketuvim – Who ever lives in the land of Israel has a G-d who ever does not, has no G-d. - 111a – R Judah – Who ever leaves Babylon breaks a commandment – - 1) Israel should not go up by a wall in a group – Jews as a group should not return to the land of Israel – The messiah is to bring you not you forcing G-d’s hand. - 2) “Not rebel against the nations of the world” – how will you get back w/o force? – Do not rebel against Gentiles. - They pay taxes, support the leader of the land, etc… but they have to leave the Jews alone. – Also the gentile state don't have judgment over family lives, for crimes (minus capital) there should be Jewish courts. - 3) Gentiles should not oppress Israel too much. - Jews were not citizens until the 18thC. - 18thC – Enlightenment – Philosophical Rationalism - Deist - Revolution in political realm. – The dominant feature shouldn't be the Church but the State. - Jews lived in a Ghetto (Jewish Quarter) - If you wanted to be part of the non-Ghetto you had to convert to Christianity. - Neutral public square – come to reason together. - Emancipation of the first Jews – Jews are to be like everyone else. - Transformation of Jews from exiles into citizens. - Emancipation leading to assimilation/acculturation. - Transformation from traditional society to (what Jacob Katz calls) – Semi-Neutral Society – everything is open to negotiation. - Modernity. - Rise of Nation States. - Dominance of the State – Politicization of everything. - With this comes the thinning of a common culture - Institutions, persons, and groups, define themselves through the state. - Identity is formed through the State – the State is the only grantor of rights. - One of the things about being a citizen was dropping other allegiances. - Kehillah – community – it went away. - The first rights Jews got as rights – economics/commerce. - Jews were not allowed to own land nor hire Christians. - Voltaire – Emmancipation was a good thing – differences diminish. - Moses Mendelsohn – “Great Supporter of Emancipation” – Jews don't need to change, the state does. - Transformation of exiles into citizens. - German civil servant – Wilhelm Dohm - All non-
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