RLG100Y1 Lecture : Judaism
6. Though political pundits on television and radio inform the public, they also have to be concerned with
a. Entertainment value to increase their ratings.b. All of these.c. Making their audiences feel better about America.d. Being factually correct.
7. Social movements have been important sources of social, political, and economic change in the United States.
a. TRUEb. FALSE
8. A double standard exists on the part of advocacy organizations because issues facing advantaged subgroups get more attention than those facing disadvantaged subgroups.
a. TRUEb. FALSE
9. Contemporary political observers echo the two views of de Tocqueville and Madison in how they view the role of political groups.
a. FALSEb. TRUE
10. A national advocacy organization is an interest group
a. That only represents businesses.b. That informally represents broad groups of Americans who have similar interests.c. That represents all Americans whether they are powerful or not.d. That only represents minorities or people with less power in society.
11. The American people believe that justices on the US Supreme Court
a. None of these.b. Should be appointed for life.c. Should be elected and only for a 10-year term.d. Should be elected for life.
12. Regional, cultural, religious, occupational, and ethnic diversity all tend to increase the formation of political groups and social movements.
a. FALSEb. TRUE
13. In the United States, political parties are
a. Relatively rareb. Are a relatively accidental feature of the American historyc. None of thesed. Mentioned in the Constitution
14. Why are interest groups, political organiztions, and social movements so numerous in the US?
a. All of these.b. Because federalism and the separation of powers have created multiple points of access to political institutions.c. Because of the 1st Amendment, which protects speech. association, and the right to petition the government for redress of grievances.d. Because the way people are elected to Congress does not do a very good job of representing minorities, who have to find other ways of getting their needs met.
15. What is the margin of error for a sample of 1000 voters?
a. Plus or minus 3%.b. Plus or minus 1%c. Plus or minus 5%d. Plus or minus 2%
16. E.E. Schactschneider says about the interest groups that claim to work for poor people
a. That they may be making things worse for these people.b. That they do a good job even without handing out small benefits to attract people to their group.c. None of these.d. That they are able to accomplish a great deal even though the poor do not join those groups.
17. Why do the campaign staffs of presidential candidates pass up large states like California and Texas to concentrate on smaller states like New Mexico or Ohio?
a. The large states are just a few and there are more votes altogether in the small states.b. It is easier to persuade people in the small states.c. The large states are reliably red or blue, so the campaigns go after states where the vote is closer and they can take all of the votes even with a small win.d. The large states are just too expensive for campaigning.
18. Jackson notes that equality is generally defined as
a. Equality of process.b. Equality of opportunity.c. Equality of outcomes.d. Equality of results.
19. In an open primary, the voter can choose which primary election--Democratic or Republican--he or she would like to vote in.
a. TRUEb. FALSE
20. The womenâs movement can be very active on an issue such as affirmative action in higher education, which afffects their more affluent members, but overlook welfare reform, an important issue for their more disadvantaged or marginalized members.
a. TRUEb. FALSE
21. It is sometimes called "first-past-the-post" and sometimes "winner-take-all," but this kind of election means
a. No matter how many votes are cast and how many candidates the one with the most votes wins.b. None of these.c. The candidates have to have run-off elections until one wins two thirds of the votes.d. The top two candidates have to have a run off election.
22. Public opinion matters because in a democratic system we believe that government policy should follow the public will.
a. TRUEb. FALSE
23. With regard to ideology, Americans
a. Tend to identify with a party by their mid 20s.b. Tend to choose a political affiliation early in life.c. Tend to stay identified with a political party consistently the rest of their lives.d. All of these.
24. Alexis de Tocqueville
a. Found few religious associations in America.b. Wrote at the time of the American revolution in the 1780s.c. Wrote his great book Democracy in America at a time when Americans were forming many interest groups and associations in the 1830s.d. Was appalled at the number of commercial and manufacturing associations he found in America.
25. According to Strolovitch, in judging the effectiveness of an advocacy organization which claims to represent the marginalized,what are the guiding questions we should ask?
a. How active for the intersectionally marginalized are they? Because without that the organization is a failure.b. What coalitions do they form? Because coalitions are the key to success.c. What institutions do they target and what coalitions do they form? Because the political activity is the most important barometer.d. How active for the intersectionally marginalizedn are they, what institutions do they target, and what coalitions do they form?
26. How do the two dominant political parties prevent minor parties from emerging?
a. By using their vast funds and media resources to disparage minor party candidates.b. By refusing to give successful third party candidates leadership positions in the legislature.c. By poaching popular third party candidates before they begin to help their party.d. By manipulating election rules in debates and public funding to discriminate against the minor parties.
27. Since 1836, the republic has been dominated by how many political parties at a time?
a. Threeb. Fivec. Oned. Two
28. As sample size increases, the margin of error
a. Is greater than or equal to the margin of error.b. Stays the same.c. Decreases.d. Increases.
29. Affirmative advocacy
a. Looks for over-represented and under-represented issues in setting the agenda for activityb. Actively seeks out coalitions and works with others at the state and local levelc. All of thesed. Has a proactive agenda
30. The cell-phone only population is likely to include more young people, which pollsters have to take into account
a. TRUEb. FALSE
31. One method that schools use to politically socialize young people is
a. Ask students to watch TV news.b. Tell students who to vote for.c. Ask student to participate in mock elections.d. Ask students to read newspapers.
32. In addition to the legislative branch, advocacy groups target the executive and judicial branches.
a. TRUEb. FALSE
33. The problem with opt-in internet panels is that
a. Participants self-select, leaving out significant sections of the public.b. All of these.c. They have a greater margin of error.d. They do not use scientific methods.
34. An example of an organization which claims to represent a large demographic group is
a. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).b. All of these.c. The Japanese American Citizen's Leagues (JACL).d. The National Organization of Women (NOW).
35. Conservative and liberal ideologies differ mostly on
a. Campaign finance reform.b. Defense policy only.c. Economic and social issues.d. Civil rights.
36. Despite the fears of some that advocates for marginalized groups appeal to the courts too much, evidence shows that they in fact use the courts reluctantly and as a last resort.
a. FALSEb. TRUE
37. Are Americans more likely to vote in presidential elections than other types of elections?
a. No, Americans like to vote for direct democracy issues rather than indirect democracy representation.b. Yes, consistently American participate in presidential elections over other elections.c. Only in years when the presidential election is particularly interesting.d. No, because Americans are more interested in local issues.
38. The key way in which political parties enable democracy is
a. They stimulate interest among members of the mass publicb. All of thesec. They keep elected officials responsived. They allow a broader spectrum of participants to become involved in politics
39. In democracies around the world, multi-party systems are much more common and one sees small parties that advocate for one issue, one religion, or one demographic group.
a. TRUEb. FALSE
40. Poll results vary based on
a. Whether the method used was approved by the Census Bureau.b. Mean, median, and mode.c. Survey mode, sample size, and population definition.d. The statistical application of the Weights and Measures Bureauâs guidelines.
41. Voters who like a third party are nevertheless inclined to vote for a dominant party candidate for fear they will waste their votes.
a. FALSEb. TRUE
42. National organizations that file amicus curiae briefs are targeting
a. The Congress.b. The courts.c. The presidency.d. The Federal Reserve Bank.
43. Small racial, ethnic, or religious groups in the US
a. Don't have quotas for seats in the schools or government as they do in India.b. Do not have a party which is dedicated to their interests.c. Do not have legislative representation as is the cases in other countries with proportional representation.d. All of these.
44. When is the candidate's website NOT a good source of information?
a. To find more information about the candidate's biography.b. To find out more about the candidate's positions on the issues.c. To find an unbiased account of the candidate's voting history.d. To find out which prominent people and organizations support the candidate.
45. According to the "funnel of causality," party identification is more psychological than anything.
a. FALSEb. TRUE
46. The agencies which connect people to government are called "linkage mechanisms."
a. TRUEb. FALSE
47. Some theorists argue against the pluralists with a "rational actor" argument that says
a. That people are rational and want to maximize benefits and minimize effort, so they do not spend their time and resources to organize.b. That rational people always seek public goods.c. That it is rational to organize to acquire more public goods.d. That rational people really do not want the public goods as much as theorists think.
48. According to Jackson, the digital revolution has given us more information about the candidates,
a. And the candidates usually approve of the things written about them.b. And the information is usually quite accurate.c. But the information is not always accurate.d. But it is not very detailed.
49. Red states mean states that usually vote for the Democratic Party, while blue states mean those that are reliable for the Republican Party.
a. FALSEb. TRUE
50. According to Jackson, what is a core political value that nearly all Americans accept?
a. Equalityb. Democracyc. Libertyd. All of these
1. What was Darwin's theory of pangenesis and how did it fit his model of blending inheritance? How did it allow for the influence of the environment on hereditary characters?
2. How was the idea of environmental influence criticized by Weismann? What his idea of "germ plasm"?
3. What were Mendel's laws on the segregation of traits and on recessive and dominant traits? How did he support these ideas with evidence?
4. What was Galton's argument regarding the inheritance of genius and how did he attempt to prove it?
1. What is the definition of eugenics? What is the difference between positive and negative eugenics?
2. What was "feeblemindedness"? Why did scientists want to eliminate these people from the population?
3. What was the argument presented for sterilization based on the Jukes family history?
4. How was feeblemindedness portrayed in the Norton pamphlet on âSelective Sterilization in Primer Formâ?
5. How does the Carrie Buck case illustrate the concerns of eugenecists? How does it illustrate social values of the time?
1. What was the Kallikak family study, and how did it differ from the Jukes family study? What were its conclusions?
2. What were five factors that contributed to a growing concern over immigration and its threat to "nativism." (Be sure you know what American nativism was.)
3. What was the Immigration Restriction Act? How did passage of the act further eugenic goals?
4. How were eugenic doctrines popularized? What are some examples of positive eugenics?
5. What is the concept of "mental age" on which the Binet test was based? What did early researchers think they were measuring with these tests?
1. What were the results of the I.Q. test administered to World War I draftees? How did some people criticize this test and its results?
2. How did increasing research on development and genetics call into question the simple unit-character assumptions of earlier eugenecists?
3. What concerns did German âracial hygienistsâ express about different birthrates among Germans, Slavic peoples, and southern Europeans?
4. How was the rise of National Socialism (Nazism) in Germany based on promoting the genetically âhealthyâ and preventing reproduction among the âunhealthyâ? Who was included in the unhealthy category?
5. What was the purpose of the German âhealth courtsâ? How did U.S. sterilization laws serve as models for German sterilization programs?
1. How were Margaret Sangerâs view on birth control similar to and different from eugenics?
2. What were the fears over the âpopulation explosionâ in the 1960s?
3.What similarities are there between the case of the Relf sisters and Madrigal vs. Quilligan?
4. How were sterilizations in the 1960s and 1970s similar to and different from the eugenic sterilizations of the 1920s and 1930s?
5. Why were so many women sterilized in Puerto Rico?
1. What are the basic particles of the atom? What is an isotope?
2. What were the contributions of Roentgen, Becquerel, and Marie Curie to the discovery of radioactivity?
3. How did Rutherford explain radioactive decay (Experiment 1)? How are atoms of one element transmuted into another element during radioactive decay?
4. What was Thompsonâs model of the atom? What was Rutherford's model and how did he prove he was right (Experiment 2)?
5. What is the basic idea behind a nuclear chain reaction (fission)? Be able to explain 92235U â 56142Ba + 3691Kr + 3 neutrons + energy.
6. What were the circumstances that led Einstein to write to Roosevelt? What did he tell him?
1. How did the timing of the various decisions about deciding to make a bomb, making the bomb, and deciding to drop it coincide with the course of World War II? 2. What effect did the death of Roosevelt have on the decision to drop the bomb?
3. How did the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union affect the decision to drop the bomb?
4. In what ways did Bohr, Szilard, and Franck try to get the politicians to think about the consequences of dropping the bomb? What were their various recommendations about international control?
5. How was the Interim Committee involved in the decision to drop the bomb? Which scientists advised the committee and what did they recommend?
1. How did Oppenheimer's attitudes toward the atomic bomb change over his lifetime? After the war was over, what was he advocating in relation to the bomb?
2. What were the reasons for and against initiating the project to build the atomic bomb? Did these reasons change during the course of the war?
3. What were the reasons in 1945 for and against dropping the bomb in a surprise attack?
4. With the benefit of hindsight, of more knowledge about the actual state of Japan in 1945, and of further understanding about the effects of the bomb, do you still think that the reasons you suggested in answer to question 3 are valid? Do you think there was any way to have done things differently?
1. How did the United States people first learn of the bombing of Hiroshima? What were they told?
2. What alternative to using the bomb was always mentioned by those justifying the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
3. What was the Potsdam ultimatum and how did the Japanese respond? Why did they reject it?
4. What possibilities for a negotiated peace settlement with Japan existed during the summer of 1945? Why were they unsuccessful?
5. When and how did the American public first begin to learn about the effects of the bombings on the people of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
1. What were some of the reactions of scientists to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
2. What were the major concerns of scientists after the war regarding the development and control of nuclear weapons?
3. How did the events of the Cold War influence the development of the Hydrogen Bomb?
4. What was the recommendation of the General Advisory Committee concerning the H-bomb, and on what reasons was it based?
1. In the years after World War II, how did scientists justify further research and development of nuclear weapons? How did cultural images facilitate this process? 2. What prompted U.S. policymakers to launch the "peaceful atom" campaign?
3. How was civil defense used to encourage public acquiescence during the early years of the nuclear arms race?
4. Why were so many civil defense campaigns directed toward women and children?
5. Did CDA materials provide an accurate portrayal of nuclear war?
Skolnikland is in Eastern Africa, with a population of 30 million people. The country has a plains region, a hill region, and a region with high mountains. It has a number of ecosystems. The plains are dry for much of the year, there is some rainforest, and the rest of the country includes both hills and mountains. There are two seasons of heavy rainfall.
The citizens come from several ethnic groups that tend to live in their own regions and speak different languages. The ethnic groups largely follow one of three different religions. The large cities are mixed ethnically. One ethnic group is economically and socially very dominant. The people from this group live in the capital and most of the large cities. The national language is the language of this dominant ethnic group.
According to World Bank criteria, Skolnikland is among the poorest countries in the world. The economy has been growing at about 4% per year on average over the last decade, but the economy had very slow economic growth in the decades prior to that. The richest 10% of the population controls 80% of the national income.
About 80% of the people live in rural areas and 20% in urban areas. The number of people living in urban areas has been growing recently at an increasing pace. Most people earn their livelihood in agriculture but there is an increasing garment manufacturing industry in the two largest cities. There are also a number of mining industries. In addition, other export industries are beginning to grow, mostly focused on the export of commodities to China.
The total fertility rate is about 4.5 but it has been declining slowly over the last two decades, from over 6. There is an almost equal number of men and women in the population. Infant mortality is about 90 per 1,000 live births. Maternal mortality is about 500 per 100,000 live births. Thirty-five percent of the children are underweight for age.
The adult literacy rate is about 40%. The educational enrollment rate, especially for girls at the primary and secondary levels, has been growing slowly, but steadily. Most recently, this rate has been growing at an increasing pace and about 75% of the girls now attend school regularly, although many of them are of very low quality.
Only about 50% of citizens have access to safe water. Only about 30% have access to sanitary disposal of human waste.
HIV prevalence is 7% of the adult population. The number of new HIV cases annually has begun to plateau. About half of the people eligible for treatment for HIV are on treatment. Malaria is rampant in the plains.
Investments in the road system have been growing at a solid pace in the last decade and the use of private automobiles has begun recently to increase more rapidly.
Skolnikland has a pluralistic health system that is made up of public and private institutions, publicly financed providers, licensed private providers, unlicensed medical practitioners, and traditional healers. There is no health insurance, except for some free services for the poor in the few publicly financed hospitals, which the better off people do not attend. The health system is not very effective or efficient and is generally of low quality. The HIV, TB, and malaria programs are not effective or efficient and they are just beginning to adopt paradigms for services that follow global best practices.
If you were interested in investing in maternal and child health using a results-based financing scheme, which program is the most appropriate?
A. Invest in training more skilled birth attendants in a village.
B. A plan to give the local clinic in the village a grant after the clinic demonstrates that its efforts have led after two years to lower under-5 child mortality.
C.Provide all pregnant women in the village with a full course of antenatal vitamins.
In Skolnikland today, approximately what proportion of the burden of disease, measured in DALYs, is likely to be Group I-related?
In Skolnikland, life expectancy fell in the 1990s, which can be attributed to:
In Skolnikland, the cost for treating severe diarrhea in young children is $18 for community-based care and $20 for clinic-based care. The cure rate for community-based care is 60%. The cure rate for clinic-based care is 90%. Which approach is the most cost-effective?
A. Community-based care
B. Clinic-based care
C. They are equally cost-effective
In Skolnikland, what are likely to be three of the five leading causes of death of under-5 children, besides perinatal causes?
A. TB, diarrhea, pneumonia
B. Malaria, diarrhea, measles
C. Diarrhea, malaria, pneumonia