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School of Environment
Course Code
Jack Parkinson

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ENV200 April 5th, 2011
The Arctic Ocean and the Northwest Passage:
As the ice in the Arctic Archipelago shrinks, sovereignty over the
Northwest Passage is questioned.
This is due to new oil access, and a new passage.
Five littoral states Canada, US, Russia, Denmark, and Norway.
oOverlapping claims of ownership!
Jurisdiction of a State over waters off its coast.
o12 nautical miles off the shore.
oStates must give permission to use the waterway.
oNot the same as EEZ 200 nautical miles.
2005: The Nuclear Submarine USS Charlotte
oAlleged to have traversed Canadian Arctic waters, although US
stated the passage was international.
oPM Harper announces measures to preserve arctic sovereignty.
2007: Russian expedition placed national flag on ocean floor near the
North Pole.
Does it matter?
oIf the passage is Canadian:
We have right to environmental, immigration, customs
and criminal laws.
Charge fees.
Specify the vessels that can enter.
Regulate the activities of those ships
Access to resources.
Resolving Ownership
oPost David Wilkins and the Bush administrations.
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