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School of Environment
Jack Parkinson

ENV200 April 5 , 2011 The Arctic Ocean and the Northwest Passage: As the ice in the Arctic Archipelago shrinks, sovereignty over the Northwest Passage is questioned. This is due to new oil access, and a new passage. Five littoral states Canada, US, Russia, Denmark, and Norway. o Overlapping claims of ownership! Jurisdiction of a State over waters off its coast. o 12 nautical miles off the shore. o States must give permission to use the waterway. o Not the same as EEZ 200 nautical miles. 2005: The Nuclear Submarine USS Charlotte o Alleged to have traversed Canadian Arctic waters, although US stated the passage was international. o PM Harper announces measures to preserve arctic sovereignty. 2007: Russian expedition placed national flag on ocean floor near the North Pole. Does it matter? o If the passage is Canadian: We have right to environmental, immigration, customs and criminal laws. Charge fees. Specify the vessels that can enter. Regulate the activities of those ships Access to resources. Resolving Ownership o Post David Wilkins and the Bush administrations. www.notesolution.com
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