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Sampling Distributions & Confidence Intervals

-sample to sample variability

how much variation do you have from sample to sample

calculate standard deviation; little consensus if there is a large SD

less spread around the mean = smaller SD = more consensus

-large standard error = less reliability in sample

standard deviation is numerator for formula of standard error

denominator is sample size

larger denominator = better because it spreads out more; therefore a

decreases standard error

-sampling distribution of means: taking samples over and over again and plotting the means

-large error term: large sample to sample variability and wide confidence intervals

-larger CI = size of error term

*Analytical Thinking Exercises

1) Standard error would increase; greater sample to sample variability

Size of error term would increase

Width of CI would widen

Value of upper critical limit would increase and value of lower critical limit would

decrease

3) Standard error stays the same (does not depend on CI)

Size of error term increases

Value of critical Z-score increases

Width of CI widens

Value of upper critical limit would increase and value of lower critical limit would

decrease

2.58 = 99% CI

1.96 = 95% CI

4) Standard error increases

Error term increases

CI widens

Value of upper critical limit would increase and value of lower critical limit would

decrease

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