Men and women have similar levels of mental illness but different symptoms. For years, it was thought that women have more mental health problems. Why were they finding this, the research only focused on particular outcomes, they kept looking at depression. Another reason was that findings were defined by the questions being asked. Women viewed as a disadvantaged group, because they were disadvantaged they had higher rates of mental health problems. Differential exposure, men and women exposed to different types of stressors, women exposed more to stressors that do with family life, men to work stressors different affect. Rosenfield and smith- they offer a different explanation. Agricultural societies- men and women produced goods at home, equally valued women had central productive responsibilties. Industrial revolution: workplace became divided from the home. Consequence of public-private lines productive work of public sphere became associated with men and masculinity socioemotional work and domestic work became associated with the private sector and women and femininity.