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SOC363H1 Lecture Notes - Externalizing Disorders, Reference Group, Omen

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Gender and Mental Health Lecture 5 SOCIOLOGY
Women experience greater internalizing disorders
Social Phobia
Men experience more externalizing disorders
Substacnce abuse, anger,etc
this is on average
Narrowing Gender Gap
Men and Women have similar levels of mental illness but different symptoms
For years, it was thought that women have more mental health problems
Why were they finding this,
the research only focused on particular outcomes, they kept looking at depression
Another reason was that findings were defined by the questions being asked
Changing Explanations
Conflict Perspectives
Women viewed as a disadvantaged group, because they were disadvantaged they had higher rates of mental
health problems
Exposure vs Vulnerability
Differential Exposure, men and women exposed to different types of stressors, women exposed more to
stressors that do with family life, men to work stressors
different affect
There are problems with these perspectives
Rosenfield and Smith- they offer a different explanation
Power Responsibilities and Dimensions of Self
Historical Context
Agricultural Societies- men and women produced goods at home, equally valued
women had central productive responsibilties
Industrial Revolution: workplace became divided from the home
Men and women roles became distinct
Consequence of Public-Private lines
productive work of public sphere became associated with men and masculinity
socioemotional work and domestic work became associated with the private sector and women and femininity
Financial, Captial became a primary source used in exchange of goods and materials
Mens access to and accruement of capital provides them with greater resources. While women have limited
access to similar resources and instead invest time and energy into transferable care giving efforts
Women's work became less valuable then mens paid work
Family expectations- womens domestic responsibilities
women often perform the majority of household chores
mens economic particiaption justifies these inequalities
Monotonous and undervalued
In relationships where women is making more money, the guy is doing more work, but he is better recognized
for it
Can provide supportive relationships which can be positive and negative- emotion labour
when you have to deal with other people's problems and you have to deal with other stuff, this leads to
internalized disorders. Overload. (Mediator)
Mens economic expectation- because of their economic expectation they have fewer domestic expectations
if they are helping out- they often do less laborious stuff
they combine the childcare with leisure activities
More rewarding activities in the workplace, men employed in more creative work, prestige, non alienating work
Consequences of the provider role
they are more affected by work related stress, their work roles are lead to more externalizing disorders
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Womens expectation in the workplace
even though more and more of them are working now
they are still expected to do a lot of the domestic work
Stereotypes and cultural understandings of women's role in the home spill over influencing hiring decisions
and reward systems in the workplace.
Glass Cieling for women- you can only go up so high
women become segregated into less perstigious and mroe precarious situations,
fewer rewards, less control over what they are doing, leads to internalizing problems
Conflicting responsiblities
extent to which individuals perceive that work life interferes with the tasks and expectations of the home
most common stressor, has personal social and organizational consequences
Gender differences in work-family conflict
women do the bulk of the child care and housework, even if they work hours comparable to their husbands
responsibilties for both work and home leads to overload of demands
raises women's level of depression and anxiety
mediating relationship
women perceive the two as independent while men view the two as interdependent
women experience conflict as non-specific- guilt and higher levels of stress
Men experience conflict as specific and delimited
Simon 1995
meaning of roles
HIstorically, mens family roles involved economic support, womens family roles were based on emotional
support and nurturance
Dimensions of Self
how we come to understand ourselves
4 basic operating assumptions in DOS
1. extent to which outside sources control the self
2. views of others in the social world
3. boundaries between self and others
4. importance of other's needs vs one's own
Construction of assumptions
Childhood Socialization
children guided into gender roles
Girls taught to be empathetic, passive and dependent
Boys are taught the value of independent, externalized behaviors, while girls are often scolded for being
Implications for self
psychosocial resources
coping strategies
Mental Health outcomes
Negative Self Evaluations
women have higher levels compared to men
women cant be masculine, which is considered a universal ideal
women more likely to internalize other's opinions, more sensitive to response of others
Sense of Control
given that women have less access to valued resources, they often feel less in control
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