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Lecture 4

SOC101Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Social Exchange Theory, Hidden Curriculum, Erving Goffman

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Sheldon Ungar

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Oct 2nd Lecture 4 Socialization and Social Interaction Caron
Socialization: Is lifelong process by which people…
- Learn their culture including norms, values, and roles (role is behavior expected of a
person occupying a particular position in society)
- Become aware of themselves as they interact with others
- Unleash one’s potential; i.e., becoming fully human
Formation of the self
The self: a sense of individual identity that allows us to understand who we are in relation to
others and to differentiate ourselves from them
Formation of a sense of self begins in childhood and continues in adolescence
Crystallization of self-identity during adolescence is just one episode in lifelong process of
Changing theories about self
Freud only social interaction allows the self to emerge
Cooley Looking-glass self
Mead I (individual impulses, self as subject) and Me (generalized other, self as object)
Goffman Multiple Selves
Gender Socialization
Gender socialization is process through which individuals learn to become feminine and
masculine according to expectations current in their society
Gilligan demonstrated sociological factors help explain differences in sense of self that boys
and girls usually develop
Sax (2005) points out boys are more difficult to raise when it comes to discipline, physical
safety, and school. Girls are most difficult when it comes to self-esteem issues and
communication at a later age.
Agents of socialization
Agents of socialization include the following:
- Families => Most important agent of primary socialization, which is process of
mastering basic skills required to function in society during childhood
- Schools => Increasingly responsible for secondary socialization, or socialization outside
the family after childhood
- Conflict theorists suggest schools impart hidden curriculum that teaches students what
will be expected of them in larger society once they graduate
Hidden curriculum helps sustain overall structure of society, with its privileges and
Peer groups: Consist of individuals who are not necessarily friends but who are about same
age and of similar status (status refers to recognized social position an individual can
Peer groups help children and adolescents separate from their families and develop
independent sources of identity
Are especially influential over lifestyle issues, such as appearance, social activities, and
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