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SOC101Y1 (985)
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Online Reading 2 Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

Online Reading #2 Degree of separation: -The idea that everyone is on average approximately six steps away, by way of introduction, from any other person in the world, so that a chain of "a friend of a friend" statements can be made, on average, to connect any two people in six steps or fewer. Social network: is a bounded set of individuals linked by the exchange of material or emotional resources -These patterns of exchange determine the boundaries of the network. -Members exchange resources more frequently with each other than with non- members. -They think of themselves as network members. -Social networks may be formal (defined in writing) or informal (defined only in practice) -Connect us to the larger world -Not restricted to ties among individuals: can be between lovers of diplomatic nations -Nodes: units of analysis. Ex: countries, individuals, organizations -Networks don’t always have names; networks lie beneath the more visible collectivities of social life -“It’s not what you know, it’s who you know” - Mark Granovetter (1973), you may have strong or weak ties to another person -Weak ties may be more useful in finding a job with their diverse networks, because strong ties have the same social networks as you -Strength in weak ties: diversity and abundance Ferdinand Tönnies -A community: intimate and emotionally intense social ties, -Society:impersonal relationships held together largely by self-interest. -However, Wellman found that Torontonians are network rich Ex: automobile, public transportation, the telephone, and the Internet -Network analysis focuses on actual social relationships, not age, group, gender, etc. -Information is spread through networks first, eventually to the broad community -Focuses on concrete social ties Ex: HIV being a gay men disease is incorrect Dyad: Social relationship between 2 nodes (Marriage) -Both partners must be intensely and intimately involved -Needs both to live but dies if one node opts out -Cannot have free riders: benefit without contributing -Partners must assume full responsibility for everything that transpires; cannot shift responsibility to a larger collectivity (since it does not exist) Triad: Social relationship between 3 nodes -Less intimate and intense -Restricts individuality: constrains one for the collective good (Ex: outvoted) -Allows coalitions/factions to form -Third-party mediation of conflict between two partners is possible. -Third-party exploitation of rivalry between two partners is possible. -A third-party divide-and-conquer strategy is possible (encouraging rivalry for dominance) -Free riders are possible. -It is possible to shift responsibility to the larger collectivity Bureaucracies: -Weber: Most effective type of secondary group in older organizational groups -Bureaucratic inefficiencies can cause tragedies -In reality, bureaucracies vary in efficiency -Dehumanization: Treating clients as standard procedures -Bureaucratic ritualism: Rules and regulations sometimes overtake actual goals -Oligarchy: Rule of the few, hindering democracy -Bureaucratic inertia: bureaucracies are sometimes so large and rigid that they continue policies even when clients’ needs change Two factors of bureaucratic inefficiency 1) Size: the bigger the more problematic (jealousy, possibility of clique formation, rivalries, conflict, and miscommunication) Number of dyadic relationships: (n^2-n)/2 Ex: (4^2-4)/2 = 6 4 people will ha
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