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Sociology (3,252)
SOC101Y1 (985)
Candice K (2)

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Candice K

In the 90s, useful offenders found that Chrystler cars were easier to steal, causing high levels of motor theft. Implications introduced to control the theft. HOT SPOT RESEARCH by Weisburd and Sherman. In Minneapolis  what happens when we really concentrate the police in one area? You could possibly disperse crime in that area, 5% of the locations were responsible for 64% of the calls to the police (?) which resulted in an increase in guardianship in those areas. In this research, 110 hot spots were chosen (bars, street corners, places were liquor was sold etc) and were split up into 2 groups of 55 each. It was noted that the experimental group had twice the police attention as compared to the control group. Other policies that led to increased guardianship? Examples: shoot in Scarborough led Mayor Ford to introduce crackdowns in neighbourhood, airports post 9/11, presence of surveillance cameras in America/England to monitor your speed. These were all instances where control was engineered into our environment. However, it is quite evasive and assumes that all offenders are rational actors as they consider costs and benefits of committing crime. But it is important to remember that crime is an irrational act where some amount of adrenaline and anger aggravates irrational behaviour. For instance, Hershey’s assumption that everyone is motivated to commit crime. “It does not matter if it reduces crime. Lets do it, who cares about evasiveness”. According to Conflict theory, crime and deviance are products of perpetual class struggle. Rulings of capitalist society (a) define what criminal behaviour is (b) produces/creates conditions that force people to commit crime (c) deduces machinery for control There were a number of problems that were appearing during that period. New generation of criminologists who searched for (?) Introduction of critical criminology during this time. However, the entire theory wasn’t entirely new but derived ideas from the approaches of labelling theory, conflict theory and Marxist theory. SUPER THEORIES/GRAND THEORIES – Two grand perspectives: 1. Consensus – The model stressed that all parts of society are not fully integrated but are working toward equilibrium. Change occurs in a rational/stable way instead of a violent one. It assumes that since moral values are shared, a criminal/delinquents different from a normal person. Most theories we have covered in the course are consensus theories. 2. Conflict (Marx) – It focuses on the importance of social change and the exercise of power by limited individuals. Who has the power to make decisions? If society has moral values they are enforced by the powerful. Individuals are termed as criminals/delinquents because it is in the interest of the ruling class to call them so, Thus, the ruling class or the powerful may not recognize white collar crime but street crime even though white collar crime can be a matter of concern. Distribution of power in society causes only certain people to be labelled as delinquents. In a nutshell: CONSENSUS CONFLICT  Stability  Change  Well integrated  Conflict  Elements have functions  Elements contribute to change  Value consensus  Consensus from coersion KARL MARX – His writings reflected on th economic and social disruptions during the time he lived. Dialectical theory of human progress. He stated that history showed perpetual struggles between people and that there was conflict due to economic arrangements *weaker vs powerful) However, the consequence of the perpetual struggle was betterment i.e. shift from slavery to feudalism, from feudalism to capitalism. Thus, the economic arrangements ended up improving and there was a progress of humanity BUT there were also seeds of destruction that ultimately caused a downfall. Capitalism  more material good, constitutional govt, eco growth. But this new form of constitutional govt created a ruling class that accum
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