SOC101Y1 Lecture Notes - California Division Of Juvenile Justice, Biopower, Canada Border Services Agency

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
of 5
Mar 21st
Week #10
Gender, the State, and Power
Main Questions:
1. How can we understand the state, not only as a macro-structure, but as a network
of multiple institutions with conflicting messages about gender? How do power
and resistance operate in two penal institutions in Lynne Haney’s study?
2. What is the relationship with the state and citizens in the case of sex workers in
India under globalization in Chaitanya Lakkimsetti’s study?
Lynne Haney
- ethnographic study of a county probation department and a group home for
incarcerated teen mothers in California
- ‘street level bureaucracy’ – 1980
othe significance of face-to-face interaction between citizens and front line
workers of the state, ‘street level bureaucrats’ in the making of citizenship
othe state not only as a macro-structure with law and policy, but multiple
institutions embodied in people
ex. police officer, social worker, the courts (lawyers, judges, etc.)
follow the law but have discretion
- what types of ‘street level’ bureaucrats do you meet in your everyday life: the
OSAP people, public school teachers (follow national curriculum), immigration
- ***beyond the monolithic state: many arms of the state:
othe birufication in the juvenile system
1. coercive apparatus for punishment – Juvenile Hall, CYA
(California Youth Authority)
2. permissive apparatus for discipline – probation office, the
Alliance (group home for incarcerated mothers)
- the state is a differentiated body composed of multiple institutions
- both coercive and permissive arms of the state are interdependent
Michel Foucault and Power
- how the power in modern times is different than feudal kingdom times
- conventional understanding of power:
opower to take life
oex. torture
owe look at power as something that prohibits us – oppressive
- disciplinary power/biopower to govern life: the panopticon
opower to discipline, not to take life
oex. guard becomes internalized within you – you are constantly watching
out for yourself because you are worried if the guard is there watching you
or not
Foucault: Power and Resistance
- History of Sexuality, Volume 1 (1978)
o“where there is power, there is resistance, and yet, or rather consequently,
this resistance is never in a position of exteriority in relation to power” pg
- regulation and resistance are inter-related: looking at how girls resist enables us to
see how power operates
owhen we see what people are resisting, we see what kind of power is there
that creates this resistance – what king of power is there for them to resist?
how does the power operate?
- using resistance as a diagnostic of power
Power and Resistance
A. The Probation Office
(Carol Jackson)
- goal: independence from boyfriends (private patriarchy)
- girls’ resistance: insisting that boyfriends are economic and physical necessity
B. The Group Home
(Alliance Staff members)
- goal: independence from the state welfare (public patriarchy)
- resistance: claiming welfare as their rights, reported to the Men in Suits (CYA
- the state is not a uniform, monolithic structure, but is made up with multiple
institutions with confliction messages about gender
HIV is Our Friend: Prostitution, Power, and State in Postcolonial India
- critical opportunity of the state to have a different relationship with the sex
Context and Background
- HIV in India:
othird largest in the world…
- HIV and state response:
o1986: HIV first detected among sex workers
o1989: Aids Bill
o1992: National Aids
Biopower: Modern State’s involvement in governing life
- can’t just take your life…more about managing your life as a whole
- …
Using Foucault with HIV Article: Repressive Power and Biopower
Repressive Power – was just a criminal that needs to be put down
- penal laws
- police interventions
- violent suppression
- stigma – cannot claim their rights so easily – threat to moral of society
- exclusion as a threat
Biopower – because of HIV – new understanding – now they become a part of the state
(whether they like it or not) – the state has to intervene to control/eliminate HIV
- public policy
- health initiatives
- surveillance
- …
Sex Workers as New Subjects in Biopower Projects
- the HIV crisis became a new opportunity for the state
- civil and political rights
- before, they only targeted the women, now they target the customers as well
Political Rights
- proposal to change the anti-prostitution laws in 2005
- March 2006, 4,000 sex workers marched to the parliament – could not have been
possible before – demanding their seat in the decision making
- …
- Gathered support from NACO, and HIV/AIDS groups
- …
Summary of Analysis
- transational projects bring sex works into different relationship with the state
- make them subjects of the state ina new way
- opens up spaces for sex workers to make claims of citizenship
- HIV in this way became paradoxically sex worker’s ‘friend’
Guest Lecture: Salina Abji
Is Deportation a Form of Violence Against Women? Addressing the Rights of Non-Status
Women in Toronto, Canada
Violence Against Women
- “any act of gender-based violence that results in or is likely to result in physical, sexual,
or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or
arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life”