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Mar 21st Lecture #10.doc

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University of Toronto St. George

SOC380 Mar 21 st Week #10 Gender, the State, and Power Main Questions: 1. How can we understand the state, not only as a macro-structure, but as a network of multiple institutions with conflicting messages about gender? How do power and resistance operate in two penal institutions in Lynne Haney’s study? 2. What is the relationship with the state and citizens in the case of sex workers in India under globalization in Chaitanya Lakkimsetti’s study? Lynne Haney - ethnographic study of a county probation department and a group home for incarcerated teen mothers in California - ‘street level bureaucracy’ – 1980 o the significance of face-to-face interaction between citizens and front line workers of the state, ‘street level bureaucrats’ in the making of citizenship o the state not only as a macro-structure with law and policy, but multiple institutions embodied in people  ex. police officer, social worker, the courts (lawyers, judges, etc.) • follow the law but have discretion - what types of ‘street level’ bureaucrats do you meet in your everyday life: the OSAP people, public school teachers (follow national curriculum), immigration officer - ***beyond the monolithic state: many arms of the state: o the birufication in the juvenile system  1. coercive apparatus for punishment – Juvenile Hall, CYA (California Youth Authority)  2. permissive apparatus for discipline – probation office, the Alliance (group home for incarcerated mothers) - the state is a differentiated body composed of multiple institutions - both coercive and permissive arms of the state are interdependent Michel Foucault and Power - how the power in modern times is different than feudal kingdom times - conventional understanding of power: o power to take life o ex. torture o we look at power as something that prohibits us – oppressive - disciplinary power/biopower to govern life: the panopticon o power to discipline, not to take life o ex. guard becomes internalized within you – you are constantly watching out for yourself because you are worried if the guard is there watching you or not Foucault: Power and Resistance - History of Sexuality, Volume 1 (1978) o “where there is power, there is resistance, and yet, or rather consequently, this resistance is never in a position of exteriority in relation to power” pg 95 - regulation and resistance are inter-related: looking at how girls resist enables us to see how power operates o when we see what people are resisting, we see what kind of power is there that creates this resistance – what king of power is there for them to resist?  how does the power operate? - using resistance as a diagnostic of power Power and Resistance A. The Probation Office (Carol Jackson) - goal: independence from boyfriends (private patriarchy) - girls’ resistance: insisting that boyfriends are economic and physical necessity B. The Group Home (Alliance Staff members) - goal: independence from the state welfare (public patriarchy) - resistance: claiming welfare as their rights, reported to the Men in Suits (CYA officers) - the state is not a uniform, monolithic structure, but is made up with multiple institutions with confliction messages about gender HIV is Our Friend: Prostitution, Power, and State in Postcolonial India - critical opportunity of the state to have a different relationship with the sex workers Context and Background - HIV in India: o third largest in the world… - HIV and state response: o 1986: HIV first detected among sex workers o 1989: Aids Bill o 1992: National Aids Biopower: Modern State’s involvement in governing life - can’t just take your life…more about managing your life as a whole - … Using Foucault with HIV Article: Repressive Power and Biopower Repressive Power – was just a criminal that needs to be put down - penal laws - police interventions - violent suppression - stigma – cannot claim their rights so easily – threat to moral of society - exclusion as a threat Biopower – because of HIV – new understanding – now they become
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