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SOC101Y1 (985)


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Christian O.Caron

January 22 2014 Politics Theories of Social Movements Breakdown theory: people rebel when traditional norms, expectations and patterns of behavior are disrupted Resource Mobilization theory: people rebel when they have access to the material and organizational means to do so Framing theory: people rebel when social movement leaders make their activities, ideas and goals congruent with the interests, beliefs and values of potential movement recruits Popular Breakdown Theory: Relative Deprivation as Cause of Rebellion - People feel relatively deprived when they experience an intolerable gap between the social rewards they think they deserve and the social rewards they expect to receive. Social rewards are widely valued goods, including money, education, security, prestige, etc. Accordingly, people are most likely to rebel against authority when rising expectations (brought on by, say, rapid economic growth and migration) are met by a sudden decline in social rewards (due to, say, economic recession or war). Resource Mobilization Theory -Resource mobilization theory is based on the idea that social movements can emerge only when disadvantaged people can marshal the means necessary to challenge authority -Foremost among the resources they need to challenge authority is the capacity to forge strong social ties among themselves -Other important resources that allow disadvantaged people to challenge authority include jobs, money, arms, and access to means of spreading their ideas Egypt 2011: Demonstrators were more likely than sympathetic bystanders to 1) Have pre-existing ties to civic associations (donating money and volunteering time) 2) Be structurally available (single, urban men) 3) Rely on new media (use cell phones and internet for information and organization) 4) Be relatively deprived (have strong grievances against national government) Egypt 2012: Won by movement that framed election using culturally resonant symbols and values -The Muslim Brotherhood (illegal movement formed in 1928) won the 2012 presidential election using anti-Western and religious symbols and ideas to attract a plurality of voters (secularists, concentrated in the biggest urban region of Cairo and the Nile delta, tended to support Ahme
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