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HEISE 8.docx

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Christian O.Caron

HEISE/ MACKINNON—THEORIES of NORMS AND INSTITUTIONS CHAPTER 8 Comparison • Heise looks at the relationship between ACT and their model of Self and Identity concerning the situational processes • ACT relates to identities and roles—and interlocks with Heise’s system relating to identities and self (Variables selected identity and realized identity) • ACT focuses on the bottom portion of the control system (downward from selected identity and realized identity) while the theory of identities and selves (Heise) focus on the higher level of the control system= a hierarchical cybernetic system connecting individuals’ selves to identities, and then to situational actions that express those identities. • ACT—Selected identity=input that is decided upon defining an event or situation o Heise proposes that an individual selects from his/her identity set an identity that is similar/matches the institutional setting. Prefers an identity that actualizes the self-sentiment or is redemptive of recent divergences to self-sentiment. (Person will choose an identity that is more in tuned with their actual self but is somewhat modified to fit the setting. If previous issues arise that have challenged this self- sentiment, they seek to redeem their identity.) • ACT deals with Realized Identity—when re-identification occurs (the concluded/inferred identity is actually different from the selected identity of that person. (Doesn’t influence involvement in assessing authenticity of self) RELATION TO SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS • Institution in ACT is a factor when selecting identity (when defining a situation) BUT NOT in reselecting identities during re-identification. • Role behaviors are selected from the set of behaviors that are meaningful for the situation and relevant to the institution. Also, both selected and confirmed identities must be institutionally sensible. (Meaning e.g. you wouldn’t take on the role of a teacher when you are being taught.) • Cognitive theory of self, centered in cultural identities—the cultural structuring of identities transports into an individuals identity set and serves important psychological functions for the individual. (No influence on ACT) APPLICATION— • Heise argues that actualizing a negative self-sentiment = adoption of deviant identities deviant behaviour. • Comparing Heise’s approach to deviance to Howard Kaplan’s (both link deviance to self-esteem) • Kaplan: various conditions (either deviant or conforming behaviour can casually connect to high or low self-esteem) o Self-Rejection (+ively related to deviant behaviour because of a self- esteem motive)—max positive experience, min. self rejecting attitudes o Intense for individuals experiencing low self-esteem—driven to act in ways that = success and approval from others rather than to failure and rejection. o Led to engage in deviant actions within social worlds where deviant actions are approved. (Because of their past failures and rejections) o Conditions supporting this sequence of causation:  One defined deviant actions as valued  Self-rejecting individuals see conforming with the norm as more threatening than to go against it  Belief that deviant actions are likely to have self-enhancing consequences  Alienation from the conventional facilitates deviant solutions to one’s self-esteem problems. o Self-rejection is negatively related to deviant behavior o Positively related to conformity (need to conform to group standards) o Low self esteem=distant from group standards=more conformity o HIGH self-esteem individuals may also engage in more deviant action. o Perform actions that they and their groups value, regardless of condemnation of those behaviors in yet other groups. o Conditions: o Need the approval of others in order to be motivated to avoid deviant actions o Internalized normative standards to the point that they “disvalue those behaviors that the membership group labels as deviant” o Influences self-perceptions of being ineffective, powerless, or lacking in control over his or her own destiny. o Person ceases to engage in purposive behavior”—“deviant or otherwise” (2001, p. 387); and the self-rejecting individuals attribute their failures to lack of effort rather than lack of ability, thereby producing guilt, which can “eventuate in future improvement in performance” KAPLAN o Suggests several means by which deviant actions can raise self-esteem. 1. Spends more time with deviant peers, is incarcerated, or is otherwise excluded from interacting with conventional others= more deviance 2. Self-enhancing by being viewed as a successful assault on the groups and standards that have induced one’s self-derogation 3. Deviant actions are endorsed, standards are more easily attainable, and that acceptance improves self-esteem 4. New sense of power or control over her environment that leads the person to think of herself as a more effective individual o Deviance having positive effects on self-esteem 1. Justified in context of positive reference group 2. R/t with conventional social agents is attenuated 3. Loss of motivation to conform bc severe/prolonged rejection 4. Deviant act = immediate gratification 5. Pathological low level of self esteem o Deviant action can lower self-esteem when actions are disapproved within the deviant actor’s membership groups and individually by the deviant actor HEISE’S APPROACH TO DEVIANCE: Similarities to KAPLAN: o Uses self-sentiment: 1/3 dimension of self-sentiment= self evaluation=self-esteem o Framework: R/t between self-esteem and deviance—Affect Control o Approach: identities and behaviors--positively evaluated in a deviant group are self- actualizing for group members with positive self-evaluations, even if the identities and behaviors are condemned outside the group. Differences: • Kaplan’s primary motiva
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