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March 16, 2010: Deviance and Control
•Pick up essay: starting tomorrow
•Stigma—Erving Goffman—he wrote this book called Stigma in 1963, it
is highlighted in assigned reading.
•He also wrote another book about asylums.
•He argues that in the term stigma—has two elements: the actual
experience and the potential experience.
•Discredited individual—discovered out of the box, eg. Tiger woods, john
Edwards, etc.—their differences are known about.
•Individuals who have deep dark secrets nobody knows about are
•He argues that 3 different type of stigma exists:
•1) abominations of your body—physical deformities of any kind.
•2) blemishes of individual character—discredited or non discreditable
•eg. Mental illness, imprisonment, addiction, alcoholism, and
•3) Tribal Stigma—race, nationality, and religion.
•In all of these cases, he possess a stigma, of what he had anticipated.
•One his having AIDS, and the other is can/cannot be visible depending
on the stage of disease.
•And one is exotic dancers.
•What happens to individuals when they acquire a criminal record,
their possibility of overcoming the stigma.
•Labelling theory: Edward Lemert who came out with primary and
secondary deviance. He remembers the difference between these two
•Primary Deviance: All the deviant actions that you’ve done that no one
•Secondary Deviance: involves serious labeling of an individual,
secondary deviance is really what GOFFMANN is talking about. The
condemnation or punishment is so serious, those reacting to the
violators as a different person. The actor himself will start changing
his identity based on that.
•Great example of this in our reading in the exotic dancer.
•Eg. What was it???? One of the stripper says after a while she just took
on a role…she started wearing everything that shows her body, she
thought she was an object of sex.
•Secondary deviance allows you to explore the full range of normative
violations. It is how those violations and people’s reaction in the
•Many women in the article of the exotic dancer keep the life in the box.
•Others have focused on the special effects of the criminal justice system
and what that does for their potential to move beyond that.
•Schwartz and Skonick, except they have different encounters with
criminal justice system, some had no history of law violation, some
individiauls said they have been arrested by never convicted.
•They were arrested and convicted, but ---had a letter of judge saying it
was a mistake.
•Even if the person…and had a mistake, a miscarriage of justice, here is
a letter testifying that, the only person who got job offers was the one
who had no involvement of the criminal justice system.
•Because of their social class or race affects job opportunities.
•Another classic study by William Chambliss—looked at kids in high
school, he wanted to look at how criminal labels are applied on the
basis of social class.
•Important to note he chose only white kids, it allows him to isolate the
terms of social class. Today the sector of racial profiling is very
•For years, blacks and latinos have complained they have being stopped
for no reason because of their skin colour.
•Issue at airport. Eg. Should one get pulled out of the airport because of
their middle eastern descent.
•How common is this??
•We know that most common in any industrialized country in the world.
For a long time, U.S has a low stable incarceration rate. And then
something happened in the 1980s and it kept going up and up and up,
even after the crime rate dropped. Crime and punishment do not go
hand in hand.
•England has a prison rate of 142/100,000.
•U.S has a prison rate of 750,000/100,000.
•The really interesting thing is that Canada is so different. Canada is
an entire different story, very different one.
•Now is more 100-105/100,000 adults (Canada’s rate)
•Canada went up and down like other industries, we just kept chugging
•Clearly imprisonment rate varies differently than crime rates do.
•Finland, for a long time, their Nordic neighbours had a high rate. They
consider it is a national rate. They were going to lower their
incarceration rate, and they have maintained that it relatively low
incarceration rate over this period of time.
•Canada for a commonwealth country is very low. For European country
a little high, but not bad.
•Most prisons are built in remote places.
•You build all these prisons, and especially if it is a small town, the
whole town works for the prison.
•If prison is the ultimate blemish of character, this has become a serious
concern in the U.S.
•In 2004, president George Bush emphasized the central importance of
improving the life chances of releasing prisoners, America is the gate of
the 2nd chance….
•The emphasize that limited prospects and opportunities of these
individuals and with over 600,000 inmates being released, and over 2/3
of them likely to be re-arrested, it is a serious concern.
•If college graduates are having trouble getting job, what is likelihood
that people in prison will get jobs.
•We get a consistent profile from prisoners. Inmates tend to be
disproportionate from society, and they are racial minorities.
•Notice in particular how many drug offenders there are relative to
others. This is one of the biggest reason why there has been a
tremendous upsurge in the prison population because of changes in
sentencing laws and lengthening laws.
•The majority of prisoners are male, but females are the fastest growing
segment of the U.S prison population. In large part, hit so hard by the
war on drugs.
•9 out of 10 times whether it is robbery or whether it is embezzlement of
forgery there is a drug addiction behind it.
•Also, when many states change from indeterminate to determinate
•The mandatory minimum sentences are hurting females as well.
•There is no data for the annual size of female prisoners.
•Race is a critical aspect.
•1/3 of the soon to be released prisoners are white, almost half are
black, and 17 percent are Hispanics.
•Blacks represent about 13% of the female population.
•Webster and Doob argued that there really isn’t comprehensive
historical data for the Aboriginal community. There is an absence of
the indication of the number of discrete individuals incarcerated at a
given time. Therefore, impossible to create aboriginal numbers.
•Others have argued there is an extreme number of Natives in prison.