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Robert Brym

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Chapter 6: Social Stratification Karl Marx: Capitalism, Exploitation and Class Conflict: - Writings about the social and economic forces - Wrote during a time of Industrial Capitalism which was transforming the economy and transforming society Modes of Production and Social Classes - The over all system of economic activity in a society: mode of production - Its major components were the means of production and the social relations of production (relationship between the main classes) o Slavery had been the primary source to mode of production in earlier societies and throughout history - Marx identified two major classes o Bourgeoisie : owned big business but did not do manual labour o Proletariat : did manual labour but did not own businesses o Middle Class: Petit Bourgeoisie : owned small businesses and performed manual labour - Surplus value: when labour is performed, more labour is needed to make something then what is given to them in return. This is called surplus value because the remainder is given to the owner. Class Conflict and Class Consciousness - Marx suggested that a capitalist form of production would eventually be replaced by a socialist mode of production: private ownership of property would disappear along with the inequality that it produces. - He said that this revolution would take place when the working class recognize that they are being exploited - Class Consciousness: recognition by members of a class of their shared interests I opposition of members of another class Max Weber: Class and Other Dimensions of Inequality: - More mature industrial capitalism was taking European society Class, Status and Party - Economic inequalities were central to the social stratification system and that the ownership of property was a primary determinant of POWER - he argued that power could lie in controlling other types of resources as well - structure
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