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Lecture 5

SOC101Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Hidden Curriculum, Conflict Theories, Crystallization

Course Code
Christian O.Caron

of 3
October 2, 2013
Sociology Lecture 4
Socialization and social interaction
Is a lifelong process by which people…
oChange over time
Learn their culture- norms, values, roles (behavior expected to a person
occupying a particular position in society)
Become aware of themselves as they interact with others
Unleash one’s potential
Formation of the self
Self- a sense of individual identity that allows us to understand who we are in
relation to others and to differentiate ourselves from them
oCrystallization of self-identity during adolescence is just one episode in
lifelong process of socialization
Changing theories about self
Freud—only social interaction allows the self to emerge
Cooley—looking-glass self
Mead—I (individual impulses, self as subject) and Me (generalized other, self as
Goffman—Multiple selves (fluidity of selves)
Gender socialization
Carol Gilligan
Gender socialization is process through which individuals learn to become
feminine and masculine according to expectations current in their society
Sociological factors help explain differences in sense of self that boys and girls
usually develop
Agents of socialization
Families most important agent of primary socialization (mastering basic skills
required to function in society during childhood)
Schools secondary socialization
Conflict theorists suggest schools impart hidden curriculum that teaches
students what will be expected of them in larger society once they graduate
oHelps sustain overall structure of society, with its privileges and
Peer groups: not necessarily friends but who are about same age and of similar
status (status= social position)
ohelp children and adolescents separate from their families and develop
independent sources of identity
oespecially influential over lifestyle issues (appearance, social activities,
omiddle childhood adolescence= dominant socializing agent
mass media—increasing important in 21st century
ofastest-growing mass medium= internet
oself-socialization- involves choosing socialization influences from the
wide variety of mass media offerings
others= religious institutions, athletic teams, youth groups, work place, etc…
Resocialization and total institutions
resocialization- takes place when powerful socializing agents, deliberately cause
rapid change in people’s values, roles, and self-conception, sometimes against
their will
makes important contribution to lifelong process of social learning
can occur in total socialization—settings in which people are isolated from larger
society and under strict control and constant supervision of a specialized staff
Adult socialization and the flexile self
people’s identities change faster, more often, and more completely than they did
just a couple decades ago
oglobalization (frees people to combine elements of culture from wide
variety of historical periods and geographical settings)
ogrowing ability to fashion new bodies from old (technological
ointernet, access to info., building a ‘profile’
The structure of social interaction
social interaction process by which people act toward or respond to other
people and is the foundation for all relationships and groups in society
ois structured around statuses, roles, and norms
social structure is the stable pattern of social relationships that exists within a
particular group or society
status refers to a recognized social position an individual can occupy (each
person occupies many statuses)
whereas people occupy statuses, they perform roles
social interaction requires norms, or generally accepted ways of doing things
norms may be prescriptive or proscriptive
oprescriptive norms: suggest what a person is expected to do while
performing a particular role
oproscriptive norms: suggest what a person is expected not to do while
performing a particular role
norms often influence us without us noticing, they are often taken-for-granted
practices and habits we do not pay attention to until someone breaks them or asks
us about
they exert a constraining pressure on us—think of people who unintentionally
break norms and are judged for doing so—norms are NOT universal and often
change over time
What shapes social interaction
norms, roles, and statuses are building blocks of all face-to-face communication
face to face= building blocks structure their interaction
norms, roles, and statuses require a sort of “social cement” to prevent them from
falling apart and to turn them into a durable social structure
how social structure is maintained is one of most fundamental sociological
question that can be asked
Social institutions= set of organized beliefs and rules that est. how a society will strive to
meet its social needs
Functions of social institutions
1) Replacing members
2) Teaching new members
3) Producing, distributing, and consuming goods
Exchange theory and rational choice theory
Exchange theory
Exchange theorists argue all social relations involve literal give-and-take of
valued resources, such as attention, pleasure, approval, prestige, information, and
Rational choice theory focuses on way interacting people weigh benefits and
costs of interaction
oAlways try to maximize benefits and minimize costs
oHowever, fails to explain altruistic acts, heroic acts, and decisions to
remain in largely empty or abusive relationships
Conflict theory
Degree of inequality strongly affects character of social interaction between
Emphasize that when people interact, their statuses often are hierarchically
arranged with people on top enjoying more power than those on bottom
Symbolic interactionism
Regard people as active, creative and self-reflective
Ex. ethnomethodology the things we take for granted when we interact with one
and other