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Canada (509,348)
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SOC101Y1 (985)

Chapter 9.doc

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Margaret Gassanov;

Chapter 9IntroductionSocial roles behaviors that are expected of people occupying particular social positions1950s men worked head of household women stayed at home providerDivorce rates rose after laws revised in 1969 more women in labor forceAlthough revolution led to change in world but gender inequality still existsGender Inequality definedGender social meanings associated with being manwoman sex biological characteristics of men and womenSocial meanings are constructed from social relations husbandwifeGender stereotypesThrough parental behavior tv movies media children learn to define certain social behaviors as inherent in being chromosomally male or femaleAdopts masculine or feminine personality traits and related behaviorsGender stereotypesoversimplified beliefs that men and women possess differentpersonality traits and as a result may behave differently and experience the world in different ways huntingshoppingGenderrelated identities and behaviors are socially constructedcreated as people interact with others and encounter takenforgranted rules and ways of doing things in families schools etc3 implications that gender is learned and that its content is continually renewed through social interactionoGender identities and behaviors are not stable and fixed varies across societiesoGender identities and specific behaviors need not be congruent with sex assigned to individuals at birthoGender identities and behaviors are not binary and polar oppositesPolarized characteristics of men and women aggression emotional even proven from psychological studiesPersistence of stereotypical thinking sensitize us of 2 thingsoDifference is powerful hard to dispeloFeminine traits are less desirableDimensions of inequalityGender inequalities hierarchical asymmetries between men and women with respect to the distribution of power material wellbeing and prestigeComparatively men have more wealth and greater powerPower capacity to impose ones will on others regardless of resistance they might offerCapacity to influence manipulate control others as well as in control or support by groups or organizations of agendas that either uphold or challenge existing conditionsMaterial wellbeing ability to obtain economic resources necessary to pay for adequate food clothing housing possessions workrelated earnings and wealthPrestige social evaluation or ranking of occupational activities and positions in hierarchical order that reflects degree of respect honor or deference person engaged in activity or occupying the position is to be agreedEg university professorshighly respected by Canadian publicSocial stratification unequal ranking of groups in a society and the unequal and asymmetrical distribution of prestige material possessions and power among those groups power material wellbeing prestigeResult of routine and frequently recurring practices and often unstated rulesExplaining gender inequalityFeminism body of thought on the cause and nature of womens disadvantages and subordinate position in society and to efforts to minimize or eliminate that subordinationLiberal feminism Marxist socialist feminism 2 popular explanations for gender inequalities in Canadas economy and policyLiberal feminism assumes that humans are rational and will correct inequalities when knowno1700soGender inequalities are caused and perpetuated by gender stereotyping and division of work into women and mens jobsoAchieve gender equality by 1 fighting and removing gender stereotyping and discrimination in education and at paid work2 changing laws so men and women have equal opportunities in labor force and politicsMarxist feminismoBased on Karl Marx in 1800soWomens unpaid work in home maintains and reproduces labor forceoGender equality is possible once capitalism as an economic system is replaced by socialismSocialist feministsoGender inequality cased by gendered division of laborexploitation by capitalismoClass relations constitute one system that oppresses women second system is patriarchy men rule over womenoPredates capitalismoFoundation of gender inequalities childbearing and sexual activities of womenoRemove gender inequality by government subsidized maternal benefits and childcare and comparable worth programs oRemoving inequality altogether requires eradication of male dominance expressed through legal education system family economyMultiracial feminism
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