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SOC212_LEC 4.doc

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Candace Kruttschnitt

October 3 2012 Classic Theories of Crime and Deviance I. The Classical School th A. Prior to 18 Century- always been a lot of speculation about crime, most belifes on crime were based on religious beliefs and superstition - Speculations about crime from Plato and Aristotle - There was a vast belief on sprits and they crimes were caused because of them - It also resulted in middle ages in very harsh punishment o During this time in history there was systematic hunts for witches and were tortured bady o There was a huge change in euroupe and cause - Decline in feudalism and growth on industrial revolution - The Enlightenment Period – people were rational human being and society was based on social contruct, the criminal just system began to form first, they wanted to centrize the criminal crime - Number of important leagal priniciple were established – classical school of criminology Cesare Beccaria (1738 -94): Deterrence – they challenged the previous ideas about the criminology and spirits – published a famous essay on crime and punishment, argued when a person doesn’t know what’s illegal the detuned value is 0 – we cant detun crime if people don’t know what’s right and what wrong and the what’s the punishment for it is - Also argued that suavity of punishment should fit the severity of crime - Should ensure the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people- previously to that the law was in benefit to certain classes of people - Bentham build on this idea Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832): Rational Choice – argued that the society should be based on people acting in ways that create the greatest possible ratio of good to evil - people act in their self interest- invidual will strive to maximize their plesureful experience and the minize their painful experiences - people are rationalize their behaviour – very utilitarian II. Contemporary Versions of the Classical School A. General Deterrence (potential criminality) – 1. General Deterrence= crime rates are influenced by the severity of the punishment, if you are going to get caught for shop lifting and you know the punishment you wont shop lift - this type of crime depends on: Certainty, - certainty of being caught Severity- severity of the punishment Celerity- how quickly are you caught and how quickly are you punished 2. Problems with General Deterrence - assumes all acts of deviance are rational- crimes are very irrational acts, in the heat of the moment o there is some evidence that some acts are rational – ex mafia killing the people who owe others money o if you increase the cost of parking tickets this would change people’s behaviour - also th
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