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SOC102H1 (261)

Age and inequalities Reading Sociology

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University of Toronto St. George
Lorne Tepperman

Oct 9 rs (1) Reading Sociology: Aging and the Life Course (sec 8)  Chapter 30 Childlessness and Socio Economic characteristics: What does the Canadian 2006 general social survey tell us? Childlessness- state of not having any children -if trends continue, the percentage of childlessness may equal or surpass the level in the Great Depression Stage of childlessness: postponing child bearingpostponing an indefinite timedeliberating on the pros and cons of parenthoodacceptance of permanent childlessness Structural constraints—level of restriction placed on individuals’ options by their social role or by their lack of access to social, cultural, economic, or political resources Life course constraints: Waiting game -very few people intend to be childless, although almost half of them become childless -marriage remains a pre-condition for having children Structural constraints: Effects of education and personal income -women are more likely to be childless than are less-affluent women, whereas affluent men are more likely to have children than are affluent men (opposite) Structural constraints: Effects of work orientation or work status -men who are employed full time have the lowest level of childlessness, whereas work-centred women have the highest proportion of those who are childless (opposite) -women with high degrees and incomes, have high levels of childlessness -the intention to have no children sharply increases between the ages 35-40  Chapter 31 ‘Choice’ in Filial Care Work: moving beyond a Dichotomy Filial care work—assistance and support provided by adult children for their adoptive, birth, or step- parents Purpose -in order to understand filial caregiving, there is need to move beyond a focus on a dichotomy between choice and obligation, as they are not mutually exclusive concepts (cannot happen simultaneously) Life course theorists—focus on the principle of interdependent lives, whereby events in one family member’s life have effect on other members’ -parental need for support influences the choices of adult children around the timing of entrance into the caregiving role Oct 9 rs (2) Smart and Shipman (2004) -individuals do not see family caregiving and kinship as contingent on one another, but that kinship ties and family culture provide the contexts in which decisions are made The Choice-Obligation dichotomy as ideological -family members are constructed as providing care out of ‘loving choice’ as opposed to ‘obligation’  Chapter 32 From Divergence to Convergence: The sex differential in life expectancy in Canada, 1971-2000 Life expectancy—number of further years of life a person can expect at a given age Mortality—the death rat
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